Aims: To investigate the various synthetic chemical formulations, equipment and methods that farmers use to control cocoa insect pests and also study the abundance, diurnal and seasonal population fluctuations of these pests in South Western Cameroon. This was in a bid to factor how such information can be exploited to improve on their current control methods.
Study Design: Random interview of cocoa farmers and testing of different pest management methods in a randomized block design.
Place and duration of Study: Interview of cocoa farmers in Fako. Field experiment at Research farms in Ekona and Muyuka, South Western Cameroon from November 2010 to October 2011.
Methodology: Structured questionnaires administered to 200 farmers to document how they managed mirids (Capsids) on their cocoa. There was also random sampling of cocoa plants in order to study the diurnal, seasonal and population dynamics of these mirids (capsids).
Results: Most farmers, 120(60%) perceived capsids as the most important insect pest in cocoa farms. Among the insects caught, 420(84%) were Bathycoelia thalassina, 70(14%) Sahlbergellasingularis, 10(2%) Distantiella theobroma. Higher densities of the insects were recorded during the dry season (November – March) compared to the rainy season. The diurnal population dynamics of the various insects showed that the highest numbers were observed early in the morning followed by the evening and least around noon. Most of the farmers used conventional synthetic pesticide to control the capsids and black pod diseases. Insecticides with a wide range of trade names were used against the pests which all contain synthetic pyrethroids, neonicotinoids and organophosphate as active ingredients. Cypermethrine (cypercal®) was the most frequently used while the neonicotinoid, imidaclopride were the least used. Most farmers 128(64%) used knapsacks, 20(13%) used other types of sprayers and 19(9.5%) used mist blowers.
Conclusion: Integrating the judicious use of appropriately formulated insecticides and farm sanitary practices, could be exploited in the proper temporal spatial timing of insecticide application as a component of the integrated management of insect pest on cocoa to minimise residues on cocoa beans and environmental pollution.
he probable impact of some stimulants on plugging index during tapping in Hevea trees was investigated using the NIG 805 clone in the clonal garden of Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, Iyanomo, Benin City. The experiment comprised of five (5) different treatments in three replicates. Each replicate comprised of 3 trees making a total of forty-five (45) trees. The study spanned a three month period (October to December) for two consecutive years. Stimulation was done once monthly and tapping done using the ½S, d/3 tapping mode. Data collected include length of tapping cut, initial volume (volume of latex flow within the first five minutes after tapping) and the final volume (volume of latex flow two hours after tapping. Results were analysed using ANOVA. The result for both years showed that there was no significant difference in the plugging index of the trees stimulated with Mortex 50, Vitex and control while there was a significant difference for those trees stimulated with Ethephone and Mortex 25.
Aims: The study aimed to verify the potential for growth promotion of five bacterial strains to determine the best period to verify the interaction between plant and bacteria.
Study Design: The experimental design was completely randomized and the analyzes were performed at seven and fourteen days after the inoculation.
Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was performed at the biotechnology lab of the Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná, Campus Toledo.
Methodology: The strains Azospirillum brasiliense, Herbaspirillum sropedicae, Pantoea ananatis, Burkholderia ambifaria and Burkholdeira sp., were tested to growing promotion on simple hybrid corn 30F53 YH being the inoculation made in pre-germinated seeds with 106 CFU mL-1 posteriorly the same seeds were kept on genobiotic conditions with N restriction. Were evaluated the parameters aerial and root fresh weight, aerial length, root length, N percentage on aerial part, root morphology and epiphytic and endophytic population
Results: It was observed that to the seven or even the fourteen days was possible to verify the interaction between plant and bacteria by means of the parameters evaluated in other words in both periods were significant differences between treatments.
Conclusion: Bacteria were not very efficient to promising grow on the hybrid 30F53 YH in vitro on N restriction conditions since no treatment statistically overcame the control to the evaluated parameters.
Strawberry is a crop of high added value, which was extended to new producing zones such as the State of Mato Grosso in Brazil. Therefore, the need to test the adaptability of varieties to soil and climatic conditions arises. The study objective was to evaluate agromorphological traits, fruit yield and quality of strawberry to be cultivated under greenhouse conditions following three different cropping practices. Experiment design was a split-plot in four replications with three cropping practices as main plots and three strawberry varieties as subplots. Water application was made following a drip irrigation system. It came out that cropping practices did not influence strawberry fruit yield and quality. However, lower growth performance of strawberry was recorded on Ceramic Block compared to that of Vase and Slab cropping practices. Regardless of the cropping practice, San Andreas and Albion varieties were more productive with better quality fruit and adapted to local environment conditions than Oso Grande variety.
Field experiment was conducted during Rabi season of 2013-14 to evaluate the effect of weed management in potato with conventional method. There were five treatments viz. - Hand weeding @ 30 DAP, 40 DAP and 50 DAP, Weed free and weedy check. Among all treatments maximum tuber yield, plant height and nutrient uptake by potato haulm and tuber were recorded with weed free treatment followed by hand weeding at 30 DAP. While minimum tubers yield, plant height and nutrient uptake were recorded with weedy check treatment. Maximum numbers of weeds were recorded with weedy check treatment. Fumaria parviflora Lam. (dicot weed) and Chenopodium album L. (monocot weed) were found most prominent weed among different type of weed flora observed in experimental field.