Open Access Short Research Article

Optimization of Butia odorata Seeds Germination

Jones Eloy, Cristina Rossetti, Marines Batalha Moreno Kirinus, Paulo Celso de Mello-Farias, Marcelo Barbosa Malgarim, Caroline Jácome Costa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/38610

Aims: Based on the scarcity of research related to the germination of palm (Butia odorata) seeds, the present research aimed to optimize the germination of palm seeds, using different periods of immersion in gibberellic acid (GA3) solutions and water.

Study Design: The experimental design was entirely randomized, with 30 replicates, and the experimental unit was composed of the doses of gibberellic acid and water, in a factorial scheme.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out with plants from the Active Germplasm Bank (BAG) of the Federal University of Pelotas, in the agricultural experimental field, in the south of Brazil.

Methodology: The seeds were submitted to a cleaning and hygiene pre-treatment, pyrenes (kernels) were removed from 20 harvested bunches and stored in plastic boxes, kept in a protected place at a temperature of 20 ± 1C. The following treatments were performed: without immersion (control), seeds without operculum and immersed in GA3 solution at 50 mg L-1 for 24 hours and 48 hours; seeds without operculum and immersed in GAsolution at 100 mg L-1 for 24 hours and 48 hours; seeds without operculum and immersed in distilled water for 24 hours and 48 hours.

Results: Treatments H2O/24 h and H2O/48 h resulted in the highest percentages of emissions of cotyledon petiole and leaf primordia and the highest averages of germination velocity. Treatment H2O/24h resulted in the shortest average germination time. H2O/48 h resulted in the lowest incidence of fungal and bacterial contamination. The GA3 50/24 h and GA3 50/48h presented promising results, when compared to the control, for emissions of cotyledon petiole and leaf primordia, germination speed and lower bacterial contamination. After the removal of the operculum, the GA3 100/48 h optimized the germination and anticipated the total germination of Butia odorata seeds.

Conclusion: The immersion of B. odorata seeds, after the removal of the operculum, in 100 mg.L-1 of gibberellic acid for 48 hours anticipates the total germination, demonstrating that the use of gibberellic acid, in its highest concentration and for its longer period, optimizes the germination of B. odorata seeds. While the immersion in distilled water for 24 hours provides the lowest percentage of fungal and bacterial contamination. Both methods provides improvements to the germination of B. odorata seeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Storage Environments and Duration on Seed Germination of Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus)

Olosunde Adam, Okere Anthony, Olajire Olabisi, Awoyomi Oluwaseyi, Adiat- Adegoke Mary

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/38439

Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) is a very important leafy vegetable especially in Nigeria however, availability of quality seeds for sustainable production to meet the high demand has become a big challenge. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of storage environments and duration on the germination of amaranth seeds. Seeds of two accessions of amaranth (NGB 01259 and NGB 01276) produced during the late growing season of 2013 were used for the study. The laboratory experiment was conducted at Seed Testing Laboratory of The National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology (NACGRAB), Ibadan, Nigeria between 2014 and 2015. Ten grams of each accession were partitioned to three equal parts. Samples from each accession were kept separately in three different storage environments using aluminum cans as packaging materials. The seed samples were drawn at regular intervals of 4, 8, 12 and16 months in storage and evaluated for germination. Results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) on germination percentage revealed that the effect of storage environment and duration were highly significant (P = .01) on seed germination of A. cruentus. Also, the combined effect of storage environment and duration differed with seed germination of A. cruentus indicating that germination of amaranth seeds observed at each storage period varied with storage environment. However, germination percentage observed under short and medium term storage conditions at the end of sixteen months in storage were not significantly different in spite of different storage conditions with respective values of 78.5 and 77.5%. In conclusion, amaranth seed can be stored safely for up to sixteen months with over 70% viability at a temperature range of 15.1 to 20.3ºC and relative humidity of 26.9 to 50.7% or -8.2ºC to 3.1ºC and relative humidity of 42.7 to 72.1% with at least twelve hours electricity supply to the storage environments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proteomic Analysis of Natural and Demucilaged Coffee Beans from Plantations at Different Altitudes in the Mantiqueira Mountains

Kalynka G. do Livramento, Flávio M. Borém, Luana F. Torres, Fabrício L. da Silva, Dárlan Einstein do Livramento, Luciano . V Paiva

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/38343

Analysis of the effects of climatic conditions and processing methods on coffee beans is of great interest in research, chemical composition and consequent beverage quality are strongly influenced by growing conditions and/or processing methods.

Aims: In this study, beans of Coffea arabica cv. Acaiá coffee trees grown at two altitudes (below 1000 m and above 1200 m) were assessed through a proteomic approach in an attempt to better understand the protein changes that occur during two types of processing (dry and wet processing).

Methodology: Samples of proteins of natural and demucilaged coffee bean were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The gels stained with Commassie Blue G250 were evaluated by the ImageMaster 2D Platinum 7.0 program. The differentially abundant proteins were treated with the enzyme Trypsin e aliquots of each hydrolysate sample were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Sample molecular mass profile obtained through MS e MS/MS was subjected to comparative analysis using the MASCOT program, Brazilian Coffee Genome database, NCBI and Coffee Genome Hub.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiments were conducted in the following laboratories: the Laboratório Central de Biologia Molecular (LCBM) and the laboratório de Processamento de Produtos Agricolas (LPPA) at Federal University of Lavras, (Brazil),  between 2014 and 2017.

Results: Differentially accumulated proteins, such as 11S globulin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, dehydrin, and Heat shock proteins, have been found among treatments through mass spectrometry.

Conclusion: These results contribute to an understanding of the effects of altitude and processing methods on the chemical composition of coffee beans, and thus serve as a basis for future research related to coffee beverage quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Fertility as a Predictor of the Geospatial Distribution of Forest Species in Natural Regeneration in Brazil

Roseane Karla Soares da Silva, Lícia Patriota Feliciano, Luiz Carlos Marangon, Maria Betânia Galvão dos Santos Freire, Fernando José Freire, Rosival Barros de Andrade Lima, Thiago Rodrigo Schossler, Ane Cristine Fortes da Silva

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/38652

The relationship between soil attributes and spatial distribution variability of tree and shrub vegetation, specifically those in process of natural regeneration, can be an important tool for understanding the ecology of populations and communities while enabling the recommendation of species that can be used in restoration programs of degraded areas, as in this area from Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Thus, this work aimed to study soil chemical attributes as indicators of spatial distribution of forest species in natural regeneration with higher absolute density in the Lowlands Dense Ombrophilous Forest fragment in Pernambuco, Brazil. For soil chemical characterization, samples were collected at depths of 0.0-0.10 and 0.11-0.20 m. The natural regeneration species sampling was performed in 40 subunits of 25 m2, implemented in 40 sampling units of 250 m2. The individuals with diameter at breast height (DBH) < 15 cm and height ≥ 1.0 m were measured. Thus, the ten natural regeneration species with the highest Absolute Density were defined. Geostatistical analysis was used to characterize the spatial variability of forest species and soil attributes. Tovomita mangle may be indicated for soils with different chemical characteristics and natural fertility; Brosimum rubescens and Inga capitata for acidic soils with low natural fertility, but with moderate levels of exchangeable Al; Talisia retusa should be recommended for alic soils and Caraipa densifolia for non-alic soils; and Anaxagorea dolichocarpa and Protium arachouchini for high natural fertility soils.

Open Access Original Research Article

pH of Water and Tank Mixture Comprising Growth Regulator and Agrochemicals in Wheat

Deivid Luis Vieira Stefen, Clovis Arruda Souza, Cileide Maria Medeiros Coelho

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/38178

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate, under field conditions, the effect of lowering previously the of pH of the water used in the tank mixture spraying of trinexapac-ethyl, (imidacloprid + beta-cyfluthrin), (trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole) and iodosulfuron-methyl on plant height, agronomic traits and phytotoxicity caused to wheat plants.

Study Design: The study used a randomized block design with four replications. The treatments were distributed into a 2 x 13 factorial arrangement.

Place and Duration of Study: A field experiment was carried out during the 2016 growing season, from July, 22 to December, 5. The experiment was conducted at experimental farm of Santa Catarina State University, Lages, Santa Catarina state, Brazil.

Methods: The treatments consisted of the presence and absence of a pH reducer (phosphoric acid) and thirteen mixtures corresponding to different combinations of the trinexapac-ethyl growth regulator and iodosulfuron-methyl herbicide, (trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole) fungicide and the (imidacloprid + beta-cyfluthrin) insecticide.

Results: The use of low pH water did not increase phytotoxicity caused by the mixtures of trinexapac-ethyl, (imidacloprid + beta-cyfluthrin), (trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole) and iodosulfuron-methyl. There was no effect of the pH reducer and the mixtures on plant lodging, yield components and wheat grain yield.

Conclusion: The use of a spray solution at pH 4.0 enhances the effect of trinexapac-ethyl in decreasing plant height, but without changing the productive potential of wheat.