Aims: The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of growth regulators on in vitro multiplication of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa.
Study Design: The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 5x2 (BAP x presence or absence of NAA) with six replicates, each consisting of a bottle with four explants.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Fruit Plant Propagation Laboratory, Federal University of Pelotas, RS, Brazil. After 60 days of cultivation, the number of leaves, shoots, average shoot length (cm), average number of roots and average length of roots (cm) were evaluated.
Methodology: The Stem segments with a shoot were inoculated on MS medium adding or not growth regulators 6 - benzylaminopurine (BAP) (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mg L-1) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) (0 and 0.1 mg L-1), according to the treatment. Then, they were kept in a growth chamber.
Results: The length of shoot and longest root, and root number were lower in the presence of BAP and NAA than the control (without BAP and NAA). BAP at 0.5 mg L-1 without NAA showed the highest number of leaves and the same dose of BAP with NAA, irrespective of the combination of NAA, showed the highest number of shoots of P. edulis f. flavicarpa on in vitro multiplication.
Conclusion: Cytokinin at low concentration is suitable for the proliferation of shoots and development of leaves. However, cytokinin and auxin are not preferred to the differentiation and growth of the roots. Yellow passion fruit might be efficiently multiplied by using different media for propagation of shoots and differentiation of roots, respectively.
Cassava is generally grown by small farmers, with low technological input in terms of nutrient intake. The aim of this work was to study the impact of traditional farming practice and improved practices in the development of Cassava in the field. The study was carried on the three accessions locally called 6 mois, Gabon and Togo. Data collection for the agronomical and morphological characterization of the accessions was made over a period of twelve months from 34 descriptors of Cassava. The analysis of variance revealed that the difference between the means of the circumferences was highly significant as well according to the accessions (p = 7.28e-06) and to the Cassava practice system (p = 2e-16). The seedlings resulting from the improved practice have the largest diameter (2.88 ± 2.48). Whereas the TFP (traditional farming practice) or PP plants have the mean diameter between (2.03 ± 1.84). The heights of the plants considered according to cultural techniques show a significant difference (p = 0.0075). Depending on the accessions, the difference is highly significant (P = 0.00074). Improved practice has resulted in taller plants in height compared to traditional farming practice. There is a highly significant difference (p = 0.000743) in relation to the number of leaves according to different accessions and not significant (p = 0.103) according to cultural practices. The “6 mois” accession has a large number of leaves according to the practices. Each axis (composite variable) is a combination of morphological descriptors weighted by their level of explanation of the overall variability of the system. The main contributions (PC> 13%) to the first axes of correspondence come from the accession Togo. This explains why there is a great agro-morphological variation much more marked by the "Togo" accession. There was a highly significant difference (P = 3.55e-09) between the number of tubers per plant and the number of tubers marketable per plant (p = 5.8e-11) according to cultural practices. The "Togo" accession; "6 mois" and "Gabon" have respective yields 8.9 kg / plant, 7.4 kg / plant and 4.5 kg / plant according to improved practice or GIPD while they have respectively 3.8 kg / plant, 4.1 kg / plant and 3.3 kg / plant according to traditional farming practice. Root length and width are also economically important, since plants with roots too long and too thick may indicate plants with more than one vegetation cycle
Seven hybrids of baby corn (Zea mays L.) along with two commercial hybrid baby corn varieties as check were evaluated at six locations in Bangladesh following randomized complete block design with two replications. Close resemblance between genotypic correlation coefficient (GCV) and phenotypic correlation coefficient (PCV) was observed for all traits indicating less interference of environmental effect and thus, the selection for these characters would be effective. Heritability estimates in general were high for all the characters studied except cob length without husk while high heritability coupled with moderate genetic advance as percent of mean was found for cob weight without husk per plant and cob yield per plant. Correlation coefficient analysis showed that for most of the characters, the difference between genotypic correlation coefficient and phenotypic correlation coefficient is low suggesting least environmental influence on these studied traits. Significant positive correlation existed between cob yield per plant with cob length without husk and cob diameter without husk. Path coefficient analysis showed that first cob harvest day, cob length without husk and cob weight with husk per plant exhibited positive direct effect with cob yield per plant. Thus, these traits could be emphasized during selection criteria for improvement of baby corn yield. Though number of cob per plant and cob diameter without husk showed negative direct effect on cob yield, indirect effect via upper ear height, lower ear height and interval between first and last cob harvest contributed and they should also be given importance simultaneously during selection.
Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate peach fruits quality after chemical thinning using metamitron at different times in the South of Brazil.
Study Design: The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with five replications of three plants, fruits were harvested and evaluated the central plant in the plot, and twenty fruits were evaluated in each replicate.
Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in a commercial peach orchard ‘Sensação’, in the city of Morro Redondo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in the years 2015 and 2016.
Methodology: Treatments were composed of metamitron application (200 mg L-1) at 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days after full bloom (DAFB) and manual thinning performed at 50 DAFB. The epiderms color, pulp firmness, ripening index, soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were evaluated.
Results: The manual and chemical thinning at 20 and 30 DAFB contributed to the epidermis greenish-yellow fruits coloration in the year 2015. The lowest maturation indices were verified in fruits submitted to chemical thinning at 20 and 30 DAFB during the two years evaluated. The firmness of fruit pulp increased when peach trees were submitted to chemical thinning at 30 and 60 DAFB in the year 2015. The phenols and antioxidant activity of fruits presented higher concentrations of these compounds in manual thinning during the two years evaluated.
Conclusion: Peaches quality was altered according to the thinning methods and the application time of the metamitron performed in the trees. The use of metamitron in peach chemical thinning did not affect the fruits soluble solids content in relation to manual thinning. Thinned fruits quality presented differences in relation to the cycles evaluated for epidermis color, firmness and soluble solids.
In the chili crop, substrates are used that provide a high quality of the seedling, which directly reflects the productivity of the plant. To maximize the use of this input is usually used the system of production of seedlings in trays, in this system, the volume of the substrate and its quality are determinants in the quality of the seedling. Thus, the present research had as objective to evaluate pepper seedlings quality submitted to different substrates and types of trays. Five substrates and two types of trays were evaluated, the substrates were S1: Bioplant® commercial substrate (control treatment); S2: Earthworm humus; S3: Solo; S4: 1/2 Soil + 1/2 Húmus of earthworm and S5: 3/4 Soil + 1/4 Humus of earthworm, and the types of trays B1: with 98 cells and B2: with 200 cells, in a completely randomized design, in the 5 x 2 factorial scheme, with four replicates. Regarding the emergence and the emergence speed index, all the alternative substrates (S2, S3, S4 and S5) confer quality and homogeneity of seedlings similar to the control treatment. Regarding the Dickson quality index, the alternative substrates S1, S2, S4 and S5 conditioned the best qualities of seedlings, and the seedlings improved vigor and resistance to adverse factors. Analyzing the characteristics of dry shoot mass and total dry mass, both substrates S2 and S4 presented the best results for tray B1. Thus, the alternative substrates S2, S4 and S5, allied to tray type B1, provided better red pepper quality.