The phylloxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch 1856) (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) is one of the most important pests in grapevine cultivation. This specie is distributed in all continents and can attack the plant aerial part and the vine root system. In Brazil, phylloxera has been causing losses in most municipalities from the southern region that produce grape, and there is no evidence of D. vitifoliae in the State of Espirito Santo. The objective of this study was to monitor the occurrence of D. vitifoliae in the grapevine crop in the State of Espirito Santo. Between February and December of 2016, leaves and roots with typical pest lesions were collected from grapevines crops cultivars ‘Niagara Rosada' and ‘Isabel' in different production regions of the state. After analyzing the materials and taxonomic identification, the presence of phylloxera in grapevines was confirmed in Espirito Santo.
Hipolyana Simone de Oliveira, Davi Alves Pereira Júnior, Lívia Francyne Gomes Chaves, Maria Inajal Rodrigues da Silva das Neve, João Luciano de Andrade Melo Junior, Luan Danilo Ferreira de Andrade Melo, Karolyne Priscila Oliveira dos Santos, Vinicius Santos Gomes da Silva
The use of chilli pepper (Capsicum frutescens) in cooking is common; however, the increase in the use of family farming also as a defensive has led to an increase in the cultivation of this condiment in both the northern and southern coastal regions of Alagoas. In the latter, the cultivation by the small producers is so intense that the local cooperative has embraced the initiative and assumed the responsibility of transferring all the production of such raw material to a processing plant located in the neighbouring state. With such influence and increased production, he began to perceive some seed issues that could hinder his production in the field, such as fungus susceptibility and lack of some essential micronutrients, due to nutrient poverty on the Alagoan coast. Due to this observation, the commercialization companies already treat the seeds with fungicides; however, the lack of nutrition still needs to be overcome. An alternative is treatment of the substrate with micronutrients, which in this study has proven effective in meeting such a need.
Laboratory studies have shown that treating urea with low concentration of NBPT prior to coating can minimize ammonia loss. There is limited field research on the ammonia volatility potential of nutrient-coated urea fertilizers containing urease inhibitors. A two-year study was conducted to determine the ammonia loss and rice response to surface-broadcast urea, urea treated with N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT), and five formulations of experimental zinc sulfate-coated urea (ZSCU) fertilizers with or without urease inhibitors. The ammonia volatilization and yield trials were analyzed as randomized complete block design. The nitrogen (N) treatments for the ammonia loss trial were applied at a rate of 134 kg N ha-1 and ammonia loss was monitored for 15 days using a semi-open static chamber. A yield trial was set up adjacent to the ammonia loss trial with N applied at 67 kg N ha-1 and134 kg N ha-1. In 2014, ammonia loss from urea (15.4%) was greater than ZSCU fertilizer with NBPT and urea treated with 0.9 g kg-1 NBPT (2.6 – 10.0%). The ammonia loss from urea (23.5%) in 2015 was greater than the other N treatments (4.1 – 18.4%). Among the various formulations of experimental ZSCU fertilizers, only the ones where urea was treated with 0.6 g kg-1 NBPT prior to coating with 1.7 g B kg-1 and ZnSO4 were effective in reducing cumulative ammonia loss as urea treated with 0.9 g kg-1 NBPT. The N treatments did not increase grain yield when compared to urea in 2014. In 2015, the NBPT-treated urea had greater grain yields than the other N treatments, which were not different from each other. Application of urea treated with 0.6 g kg-1NBPT prior to coating with 1.7 g B kg-1 and ZnSO4 is a reliable alternative to reduce ammonia loss from urea.
Aims: To provide data on the influence of common germination aids for additional pepper species than Capsicum annuum, additional species and wild types have been tested with priming media applicable to both hobby and commercial growers.
Place and Duration of Study: Germany, January to September 2017.
Methodology: 3x 50 seeds of four different Capsicum cultivars “CAP357” (C. pubescens L.), “Ancho Poblano” (C. annuum L.), “Ulupica from La Paz” (C. eximium Hunz.) and “Inca Surprise” (C. baccatum var. baccatum L.) were primed with either deionized water, 1%(w/v) KNO3, 1%(w/v) gibberellic acid or 1%(w/v) acetylsalicylic acid. 3x 50 untreated seeds of each cultivar were as control. The seeds were then put to germination on moistened filter paper, maintaining constant temperature (29 ± 1°C) and air-humidity (85 ± 5%). Seeds were evaluated daily regarding radicle formation for 30 days.
Results: Highest germination rate and germination speed were observed using gibberellic acid as priming agent with overall germination >90%, followed by potassium nitrate, which improves germination especially for seeds that take longer to germination. Acetylsalicylic acid caused germination rates and speed to decrease. Hydropriming with water showed no significant effect compared to unprimed seeds.
Conclusion: Priming with appropriate media can effectively speed up germination on varieties that take longer to germination such as wild types. On already fast germinating seeds the effect is smaller. However, a more uniform germination can be achieved.
Coriander is among the most hardwood vegetables produced and consumed in Brazil, because it is part of the national cuisine, mainly in the Northeast and North regions of the country. Its leaves and seeds are much appreciated because of the aroma and flavor they give to the dishes in which they are incorporated. The culture is traditionally exploited by small farmers, having great socioeconomic importance. Among the factors limiting the crop production are the nematodes, which are those belonging to the genus Meloidogyne that cause damage to the root system of the plants affecting their production and productivity. Identification and indication of superior genotypes are extremely important, and it is necessary to use appropriate methodology to evaluate the coriander genotypes for the reaction to the root-knot nematodes, selecting the resistant genotypes.