Open Access Short Research Article

Response of Wheat to Various Nitrogen Levels under Late Sown Condition

Bishnupriya Patra, Pratik Kumar Ray

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/39161

A field experiment conducted during rabi season 2015-16 at Agronomy Research Farm of Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar aims to evaluate the effect of different nitrogen levels on late sowing wheat. The experiment consisted of 4 nitrogen level treatments 120,135,150,165 kg N ha-1. The obtained results indicated that plant height, dry matter accumulation, leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), number of tillers, all the yield attributes, grain yield and biological yield were significantly increased except 1000 - grain weight with increase the nitrogen dose up to 150 kg N ha-1, which was at par with 165 kg N ha-1.


Open Access Minireview Article

Breeding Methods to Obtain Superior Genotypes of Okra

Kleyton Danilo da Silva Costa, Jackson da Silva, Ana Maria Maciel dos Santos, José Luiz Sandes de Carvalho Filho, Paulo Ricardo dos Santos, Maxwel Rodrigues Nascimento

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/40130

The culture of okra, although little known, exhibits an interesting trade in relation to other vegetable crops. This is mainly due to its sensorial and nutritional qualities. However, despite their importance, there are still almost no breeding programs aimed at obtaining superior genotypes. Much of this is due to complications in the use of breeding methods for this culture. The objective of this work was to prepare a literature review for improved accuracy improvement of methods for obtaining superior genotypes of okra. Based on the present literature, the choice of the most appropriate method for each characteristic can result in superior lineages.


Open Access Original Research Article

Substrate Stabilization Using Humus with Tannery Sludge in Conilon Coffee Seedlings

Sávio Silva Berilli, Leonardo Martineli, Tiago Massi Ferraz, Fábio Afonso M. M. de Assis Figueiredo, Weverton Pereira Rodrigues, Ana Paula Candido Gabriel Berilli, Ramon Amaro de Sales, Sílvio de Jesus Freitas

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/39851

The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity to stabilize substrate with tannery sludge and soil in the development and physiology of Conilon coffee seedlings. The treatments consisted of fixed doses of tannery sludge (30% of volume) and different proportions of humus in the substrate (10, 20, 30, 40% and of humus), in addition to treatments with and without conventional soil fertilizer. The biometric and physiological evaluations were measured 210 days after planting the cuttings. Humus allowed the substrate to stabilize, causing the coffee seedlings to develop well, when compared to the conventional substrate, especially in the proportion of 30% of humus, with a higher Dickson quality index in coffee seedlings. Regarding the physiological aspects, there were no changes in the secondary compound indexes or in the nitrogen balance and leaf chlorophyll. Also, there was no damage to the photosynthetic apparatus evaluated by the quantum efficiency of Photosystem II. Treatment 6 composed of 100% of soil, presented the lowest mean of net photosynthetic rate, due to stomatal effects.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Genotype x Environment Interaction and Stability of Grain Yield and Related Yield Components in Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br.)

N. Lagat, P. Kimurto, O. Kiplagat, B. K. Towett, L. Jeptanui, I. Gatongi, N. Njogu, H. Ojulong, E. Manyasa, Siambi .

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/24311

Thirty six pearl millet genotypes were evaluated in randomized complete block design with two replications during 2011/2012 at two locations to study the magnitude of genotype by environment interaction for yield and yield related traits and identify the most stable high yielding genotypes. ANOVA of data at individual locations revealed significant differences among genotypes at Marigat and Koibatek for all yield components. Combined mean analysis of variance showed that the Genotype and location main effects and the genotype by environment interaction were highly significant (P≤0.01) for grain yield and other traits, indicating differential response of genotypes across testing locations and the need for stability analysis. Marigat was the most suitable environment and gave highest mean grain yield of 3620 kg/ha. The lowest yield 870 Kg/ha was recorded at Koibatek. Genotypes EUP 32, EUP 35, EUP 19 and EUP 10 produced high mean yield of 3530, 3080, 2690 and 2590 kg/ha respectively. The lowest grain 1290 kg/ha was obtained from genotype EUP 4.Based on the parameters of stability, three stable (widely adapted) and high yielding genotypes (EUP 34, EUP 18, and EUP 9) were identified. They also out-yield the standard open pollinated variety (OPV) check, Kat PM2. Genotypes EUP 32 was the highest yielding across all sites followed by EUP 35 and could be recommended for further multi-location evaluation in warmer environment and possible release for commercial production. The findings of this study showed that pearl millet hybrids have high potential for commercial production in Kenya than the OPVs. The ANOVA results showed that the effects of environments, genotypes and genotype x environment interaction (GE) were important in trait expression and performance of genotypes. In addition, it was observed that amount of rainfall received at both vegetative and post-anthesis phases and temperature had an effect on grain yield. The GGE biplot analysis characterised the environments in terms of stability and productivity, where Marigat was the best for grain yield; implying that environment-specific selection should be adopted. Genotypes EUP 34, EUP 18, and EUP 9 were the best performing since they out yielded the standard OPV check. These stable high yielding genotypes can be evaluated further in varied agro-ecologies and recommended for release as commercial hybrid varieties in ASALs of Kenya.


Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Pesticides Usage in Selected Local Government Areas in Oyo State, Nigeria

S. O. Babarinsa, O. Ayoola, O. O. Fayinminnu, A. A. Adedapo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/39576

Background: Importance of agriculture cannot be over emphasized globally. It is fundamental to livelihood and Oyo State happens to be one of the major agricultural producing States in Nigeria with some processing companies. The use of pesticide poses serious threats to farmers, consumers and the environment. Controlling pests by using pesticides has created health issues for the farmers mainly due to improper handling of these toxic chemicals as well as the non-use of personal protective clothing. The indiscriminate disposal of pesticide containers also has serious environmental implications. Apart from the hazards of pesticide use on farmers and the environment, consumers also face huge health risk by consuming food crops with high pesticide residues.

Materials and Methods: One hundred farmers were selected randomly five from Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Oyo State and structured questionnaires were used for data collection.

Results: Almost all the respondents (94%) in the surveyed areas sprayed their crops with herbicides to weeds. The remaining 6% farmers use physical method (hand weeding), their decision is based on the small size of their farms. It was revealed from the results that most of the farmers (94%) had at least 2 acres of land for farming and farming happens to be their major occupation, which is their source of livelihood. Chemical pesticides were sprayed in combination (31 % farmers), and the efficacy of one may mask the inefficacy of others in the mixture. Most farmers (88%) focused on planting during the rainy season because of availability of water. This research also showed that 68% do not read nor follow the label instructions on the pesticides’ containers. Farmers (14%) used complete protective kits (overall-apron, hand gloves, face masks, safety goggles, nose masks and safety booths) while spraying. This unprotected spraying practice presents a great potential for exposure of farmers to chemicals from both skin contact and inhalation. Also, 54% talks when spraying, making them prone to inhalation and accidental ingestion of these toxic chemicals. There is also inadequate disposal of empty pesticides’ containers. Most of the crops that are often planted in these five LGAs belong to the “dirty dozen list’.