Open Access Short Research Article

Abundance and Incidence of Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L) Flies in the Korhogo Department of Northern Côte d’Ivoire and Pest Control Methods Used by Farmers

Yalamoussa Tuo, Klana Kone, Michel Laurince Yapo, Koua Kouakou Herve

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/38820

To improve the production of zucchini in Côte d'Ivoire and particularly in to Korhogo Department, a study was carried out at the Peleforo Gon Coulibaly University research site and at four farmers’ sites during dry and rainy seasons. On each plot, the number of healthy and attacked fruits was evaluated, based on a random sample of 100 fruits. The attacked fruits were transported to the laboratory and incubated to determine the causative agents. The methods and pesticides used to control insect pests by farmers were listed. During the rainy season, 86.06% of the fruit was attacked by flies while 13.94% remained healthy. In the dry season, for a total of 9,617 controlled fruits, 7,439 (77.35%) were healthy and 22.65% were attacked. Four insects species emerged from infested fruit. They were Bactrocera cucurbitae, Dacus ciliatus, Dacus bivittatus, belonging to the family of Tephritidae, and Scaeva pyrastri  belonging to Syrphidae. The method used by farmers to control pests was not effective. In conclusion, flies represent the limiting factor of zucchini production during the rainy season in to Korhogo Department.


Open Access Short communication

Solubilization of Phosphorus in Phosphate Fertilizers after Treatment with Different Organic Residues

Michelangelo de Oliveira Silva, Ênio Gomes Flôr Souza, Fabiano Barbosa de Souza Prates, Jackson da Silva, Kleyton Danilo da Silva Costa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/39596

Phosphorus is an element of low mobility in soil. It is combined with iron compounds, aluminum and calcium, and organic matter. Phosphorus inorganic compounds found in the soil are conditioned by pH, type and quantity of minerals present in the clay fraction. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of three types of organic waste and the incubation time in the solubilization of three sources of P in the soil of the northeastern semi-arid region. The treatments were arranged in a 3 x 3 x 7 factorial arrangement, and a solo, 3 sources of phosphorus (P), 3 organic waste and 7 incubation times. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design with three replicates. All soil samples were determined: pH, Ca and P concentrations, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 70 and 90 days of incubation. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey test to compare the treatment averages. For the incubation time factor, regression equations were set at the level of 1% probability. The most efficient organic waste in reducing pH and solubilizing phosphate was Leucaena; The biofertilizer was the most efficient source of phosphate in making phosphorus available for soil.


Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Productivity of Tomato Plants under Water Deficit

Marlla de Oliveira Hott, Edvaldo Fialho dos Reis, Victor Luiz Souza Lima, Lucas Rosa Pereira, Giovanni de Oliveira Garcia

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/39849

Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of five soil water tensions on the development of table tomato in the vegetative and productive stages, under greenhouse conditions.

Study Design: The experiment was installed in a completely randomized design, in a 5 x 2 subdivided plot scheme, with five replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted between April and July 2014, in a greenhouse of the Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, in Alegre, ES, Brazil.

Methodology: Tomato seedlings were transplanted to the pots (50 dm3), which were arranged on the ground with a spacing of 1.0 x 0.5 m, between rows and plants, respectively. Irrigation was performed to maintain the matric potential within the range between the field capacity (10 kPa) and the required tension in each plot (15, 25, 40, 55, and 70 kPa). The plants were evaluated for height, number of flowers, root dry mass, dry mass of the aerial part of the plant, fruit yield, fruit mass, productivity, and fruit diameter.

Results: At 33 days, the plants presented higher height (98.48 cm) at 31.71 kPa (R2 = 0.99), while at 90 days the plant height decreased linearly as a function of the increase in soil water tension (R2 = 0.94). Aerial and root biomass were significantly influenced by water tension (< .01), decreasing linearly as tension increased. The number of flowers produced per plant was inversely proportional to the water tension in the soil (< .01). The fruit yield, productivity, fresh fruit mass, and longitudinal fruit diameter variables were significantly influenced by soil water tension (P < .01). The largest fruit diameter (62.49 mm) was obtained at 15 kPa (R2 = 0.99).

Conclusion: The table tomato responded differently to soil water tension at vegetative and productive stages.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Resistance Status of Tomato Progenies to Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum and Ralstonia solanacearum Using Analysis of GGE Biplot and REML/BLUP

Tâmara Rebecca Albuquerque de Oliveira, Kleyton Danilo da Silva Costa, Geraldo de Amaral Gravina, Ana Maria Maciel dos Santos, Adriano Márcio Freire Silva, Paulo Ricardo dos Santos, José Luiz Sandes de Carvalho Filho

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/39411

The bacterial wilt, caused by Ralstonia pseudosolanacerum and Ralstonia solanacerum, is among the bacterial diseases responsible for tomato fruit yield reduction in Brazil. The aim of this work was to assess the resistance status of tomato progenies to Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum and Ralstonia solanacearum using analysis of GGE biplot and REML/BLUP. In 2016, forty-three progenies derived from the cross between Yoshimatsu and IPA-7 were assessed in the Recife city, Pernambuco (PE), Brazil. It was used a randomized block design with four replications, applying the CCRMRS-74 and CCRMRS-185 isolates. The assessments were performed considering the data on the tenth and the twentieth days after inoculation as different environments. The incidence and severity of the disease were evaluated using a descriptive grading scale. The analysis of variance proved there are different performances between the genotypes and between the bacteria besides the interaction genotypes x bacteria. The selection of genotypes adapted to Ralstonia solanacearum and Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum are necessary to give continuity to the resistant tomato breeding program. There was agreement between the GGE biplot and REML/BLUP methods on the identification of genotypes resistant to both bacterial species evaluated. Genotypes 6, 7, 17, 18, 25, 27, and 31 showed resistance to Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum, and progenies 1, 2, 15, 16, and 35 demonstrated greater resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum. The individuals selected may continue the breeding program and be used as a source of variation of those bacterial species.




Open Access Original Research Article

Burlap and Breakdown of Waste Plant in Desertification Processes Semiarid of the State of Alagoas

Michelangelo de Oliveira Silva, José Thalles Pantaleão Ferreira, Gustavo Pereira Duda, Rafaela Felix França, Kleyton Danilo da Silva Costa, Maxwel Rodrigues Nascimento

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/38968

Land degradation in the semi-arid region results from natural processes, which can be induced by man through the inadequate use of resources. The litter exerts numerous functions in the balance and dynamics of the ecosystems, comprising the most superficial layer of the soil in forest environments. The decomposition assessment provides an integrated view of the system, improving the assessment of local impacts across the basin. The objective of this study was to analyze the litter fractionation and the rate of decomposition of the vegetal residues, aiming to use such variables as indicators of the desertification processes, in areas with increasing levels of degradation in the Piranhas municipality in the semi-arid region of the State of Alagoas. Areas were sampled at different stages of degradation: preserved, moderately degraded and intensely degraded, in the municipality of Piranhas-AL. The litter was collected using an iron square of 1 m2, separated in woody and non-woody fraction, and the dry mass of each fraction was quantified in each area. Sampling sites were selected and ten collections were done per area. The rate of decomposition was by mass loss analysis using litter bags. The litter bags consist of polyvinyl bags with a mesh of 4 mm and dimensions of 25 x 25 cm and 1.5 cm in height. In each litter, bag was added 10 grams of collected litter, taken to greenhouse at 65ºC until constant weight. The litter bags were randomly distributed in the areas and included a growing area for comparison. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t-test methods. The litter production was higher in the low caatinga area of ​​degradation with a total value of 4.49; The value of the decomposition constant with the most prominence was in the CEMD, with 0.0034. The litter production and stock were higher in the most preserved area of the caatinga fragment after the rainy season, according to the characteristics of this biome and confirming that it is at that moment that more care should be taken as its management.