Open Access Short Research Article

Use of Coffee Moinha, Commercial Substrate, Carbonized Rice Husk, Coconut Fiber and Eggshell in the Composition of Alternative Substrates for Melon Seedlings Production

Karoline Matiello Almeida, Paola Alfonsa Vieira Lo Monaco, Marcelo Rodrigo Krause, Juliana Menegassi Valle, Lorena Aparecida Merlo Meneghelli, Gustavo Haddad Souza Vieira, Louise Pinto Guisolfi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/39792

Research related to the use of agricultural residues as a way to partially or completely replace the commercial substrates has become fundamental, as it reduces the production costs of melon seedlings. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth variables of melon seedlings grown on substrates composed of carbonized rice husk, coconut fiber, eggshell, increasing levels of coffee moinha, and decreasing commercial substrate substitution to the use of commercial substrate alone. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and ten replicates, of which four treatments were used increasing proportions of moinha and decreasing amounts of commercial substrate (0/40, 10/30, 20/20, 30/10%) as well as fixed proportions of carbonized rice husk (40%), coconut fiber (15%), and egg shell (5%) and the fifth treatment used Bioplant® commercial substrate (control). At 19 days after sowing, the electrical conductivity of the substrates, dry masses of the root system and above-ground part, plant height, stem diameter, and number of leaves were evaluated. The alternative substrate containing proportions of 20% moinha, 20% commercial substrate, 40% carbonized rice husk, 15% coconut fiber, and 5% egg husk is recommended for the production of melon seedlings of the "yellow-type" cultivar seeded in 200-cell styrofoam trays.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Production Systems, Traditional Knowledge of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan) and Risks of Extinction of Pigeon Pea, Jack Bean (Canavalia ensiformis) and Lubia Bean (Lablab purpureus) in Some Parts of South West Nigeria

Vincent Ishola Esan, Oladipupo Ibukun Ojemola

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/39835

Indigenous agricultural knowledge is an important part of the process of making agriculture sustainable. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to i) determine the techniques of pigeon pea production at farmers’ level ii) investigate the level of extinction of pigeon pea, Jack bean and lubia bean species ii) assess the distribution and potential of the three minor crops in the study areas. One hundred and fifty respondents were investigated using structured questionnaire. Direct observation, field visit and focus group discussion were carried out. The survey was conducted in Osun and Oyo State from October to December 2017. Producers mainly grow pigeon pea for its grains for home consumption. Pigeon pea’s leaves were used for medicinal resolutions to treat primarily malaria and fever. Farmers used pigeon for soil fertility and to prevent erosion. There is fear that Jack bean and lubia bean species disappear with time. Though farmers abandoned Jack bean for good reason because it becomes poisonous after two years of cultivation which always leads to death. Conservation strategies can be put in place to avoid the losses of these species for their genetic resources. This study contributes to raise awareness on the risks of losing Jack bean and lubia bean through extinction. In addition, further study is needed to be carried out to found out the chemical compound responsible for poisonous seeds of jack bean after the first harvest.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Soil Attributes in a Rotating System under Salinity and Nitrogen Trials

Hernandes de Oliveira Feitosa, Claudivan Feitosa de Lacerda, Isabel Cristina da Silva Araújo, Francisco Jardelson Ferreira, Clayton Moura de Carvalho, Albanise Barbosa Marinho

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/39321

Inadequate soil management promotes changes in soil chemical attributes and, consequently, soil fertility. Therefore, the chemical attributes of the soil under crop rotation system sunflower (Helianthus annuus)/maize (Zea mays) during 24 months in intercropping were studied, cultivating sunflower in the dry period and maize in the rainy season. A multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the behavior of soil chemical variables in the rotational system with different water salinity levels (0.8, 2.2, 3.6, 5.0 and 6.4 dS m-1), nitrogen doses (0, 50, 100 and 150% of the recommended dose of N, corresponding to 0, 25, 50 and 75 kg N ha-1, respectively), analyzing the data of the stations in a single depth (0 - 0.30 m). The variables used were: pH, electrical conductivity of soil saturation paste extract, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, potential acidity, exchangeable sodium percentage, base sum, cation exchange capacity, base saturation, saturation by Aluminum, organic carbon and organic matter. By the multivariate analysis, we verified that crop rotation along with supplementary irrigation and precipitation in the rainy season ameliorated the effects of salinity along with the use of nitrogen. It was concluded that it is possible for the soil to have good cultivation conditions even in saline environments, using crop rotation and leaching of the salts in the rainy season by means of rainfall.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Feasibility and Economic Risk of Programmed Pruning Cycle in Arabic Coffee

Diego Corona Baitelle, Sílvio de Jesus Freitas, Kezia Moraes Vieira, Caroline Merlo Meneghelli, Abraão Carlos Verdin-Filho, Danilo Força Baroni, Niraldo José Ponciano, Paulo Marcelo de Souza

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/39621

Coffee crop represents a great economic importance in Brazil, in which Arabica coffee represents a great part of the national production. However, the average yield of Arabica coffee is low, which reduces the profitability of the activity. Pruning systems can regain vigor and increase productivity. The system most adopted by coffee farmers is “recepa” (cutting off the orthotropic branch at 0.8 m above ground), which has not resulted in efficient reinvigoration. It is believed that the implementation of new systems, such as programmed pruning cycle, can improve the productivity of Arabica coffee. However, the economic impacts and risks associated with this type of pruning are still unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility and financial risk of the use of programmed pruning cycle compared to traditional Arabica pruning. A financial viability of programmed pruning cycle without Arabica coffee was determined by calculating the Net Present Value and the Internal Rate of Return. Using the sensitivity analysis, to identify the items with the greatest impact on the project. Finally, the financial risk of this technique was determined by the Monte Carlo method. The technical coefficient used for the elaboration of cash flows and is available by the Center for the Development of Agribusiness and the Capixaba Institute for Research, Technical Assistance and Rural Extension. The price data are available from the Coffee Trade Center of Vitória-ES and the Capixaba Institute for Research, Technical Assistance and Rural Extension. The reference year of the data of this work is 2017. A programmed pruning cycle is more economically feasible compared to traditional pruning. It was possible to identify the most sensitive items in pruning systems. The use of programmed pruning cycle of Arabica non-coffee is a practice with zero risk and economic yield.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Utilization of Agricultural Residues as Alternative Substrates in the Production of Conilon Coffee Seedlings

Lorena Aparecida Merlo Meneghelli, Paola Alfonsa Vieira Lo Monaco, Marcelo Rodrigo Krause, Louise Pinto Guisolfi, Karoline Matiello Almeida, Juliana Menegassi Valle, Gustavo Haddad Souza Vieira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/39797

Research related to the use of agricultural residues as alternatives to commercial substrates has become fundamental for reducing the production costs of coffee seedlings. This study aimed to evaluate Conilon coffee seedlings development, produced in tubes, using as substrates different proportions of agricultural residues. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with six treatments and six replications, comprising five treatments with increasing proportions of moinha, decreasing amounts of coconut fiber and pine bark (0/20/50, 10/15/45; 20/10/40, 30/05/35, and 40/0/30%), and fixed proportions of coffee straw (30%) and one treatment with Bioplant commercial substrate (control). Evaluations of the variables were performed at 118 days after sowing (DAS) and consisted of determining the leaf number, plant height, stem diameter, and values of shoot, root, and total plant dry matter. The use of 40% moinha + 30% coffee straw + 30% pine bark is recommended as an alternative to the commercial substrate for the production of Conilon coffee seedlings in tubes.