Open Access Original Research Article

Wood Ash as a Corrective and Fertilizer in the Cultivation of Mombaça and Massai Grass in Oxisol

Edna Maria Bonfim-Silva, Hamilton Abraham Weimar Castro, Pablo Franco de Rezende, Henrique Guimarães Favare, Luana Glaup Araújo D ourado, Helon Hébano de Freitas Sousa, Tonny Jose Araujo da Silva

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/40069

The aim of this work was to estimate the yields of Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça and Panicum maximumcv. Massai in response to the plant ash doses in Oxisol. The experiment, following a completely randomized design, was conducted in a greenhouse and arranged in a 5x2 factorial design, which included 10 treatments and five replications, constituting 50 experimental plots. The treatments involved the addition of five plant ash doses (0, 8, 16, 24 and 32 g dm-3) and two Panicum species: Panicum maximum cv Mombaça and Panicum maximum cv Massai. The experimental unit was a soil-filled container, 5 dm3 in capacity. The characteristics assessed included: plant height, number of tillers, chlorophyll index and shoot dry mass. The plant was cut at a height of 5 cm from the soil surface. The findings were submitted to the analysis of variance and when significance was noted, the data were submitted to the Tukey test and regression analysis using the statistical program SISVAR. In terms of the soil pH, a notable effect was recorded for the vegetable ash doses applied to the soil, which exert a corrective effect on the soil. Plant height and number of tillers were the variables that revealed significance for the interaction between the Panicum cultivar and plant ash doses at 35 days after plant emergence. The soil ash induced the greatest levels of chlorophyll and dry mass of the aerial parts, registering a spurt in the dry mass of the aerial parts for both forages, signifying that the management performed with the vegetable ash favored the growth and yield of the Mombaça and Massai grasses.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Genotypes for Yield and Resistance to Late Leaf Spot and Rosette Diseases

Khalid Elsiddig Mohammed, Emmanuel Afutu, Thomas L. Odong, David K. Okello, Ephraim Nuwamanya, Olupot Grigon, Patrick R. Rubaihayo, Patrick Okori

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/39912

Groundnut which is a major staple food crop in Uganda is constrained by late leaf spot (LLS) and groundnut rosette disease (GRD), accounting for major economic yield loss. This study was conducted to identify sources of resistance to LLS and GRD and yield potential of selected groundnut genotypes that could be used in breeding programs. Thirty-eight groundnut genotypes were evaluated at the National Semi Arid Resources Research Institute (NaSARRI)-Serere, Eastern Uganda during the first and second seasons of 2015. The experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design with four replications. The results showed highly significant (P < 0.01) genotype-by-season interaction for most of the traits studied. There were significant differences among the genotypes for 100 seed weight (P < 0.01), and dry pod yield and unshelled sample of 100 pods at P < 0.05. Late leaf spot severity (at harvest), GRD incidence (at 12 weeks) and severity (at harvest) were significantly (P < .01) different and positively correlated with Area Under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC). GRD severity at harvest showed highly significant (P < 0.001) negative correlation with shelling percentage. Both 100 seed weight and unshelled sample of 100 pod showed highly significant (P < 0.01) negative correlations with LLS at harvest, LLS AUDPC, GRD at 12 weeks, GRD AUDPC, and GRD severity. Genotypes susceptible to both LLS and GRD recorded the lowest 100 seed weight. Nine genotypes (Serenut.2, SGV 0001, SGV 0005, SGV 0006, SGV 0019, SGV 0071, SGV 0082, SGV 0083, and SGV 89751T) showed resistance to both diseases with high yield potential. These genotypes could be used to introgress resistance to both diseases in acceptable cultivars which are susceptible.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Piata and Paiaguas Grasses Fertilized with Wood Ash in Entisol Soil

Edna Maria Bonfim-Silva, Carina Sthefanie Lemes e Lima Bär, Ellen Souza do Espirito Santo, Marinho Rocho da Silva, Alessana Franciele Schlichting, Helon Hébano de Freitas Sousa, Tonny Jose Araujo da Silva

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/40079

The aim of this study was to assess the yield of the Piatã and Paiaguás cultivars of the Urochloa brizanthagrass, grown in the in Entisol utilizing wood ash as the fertilizer. Performed under greenhouse conditions, the randomized complete block design was adopted for the experiment in a 2x5 factorial scheme, using two Urochloa brizantha cultivars (Piatã and Paiaguás) in five treatments (0, 8, 16, 24 and 32 g dm-3) with five replications. The experimental units included plastic pots, 5 dm3 in capacity, filled with Entisol. The soil was enriched with wood ash 30 days prior to planting. Each experimental unit supported the cultivation of five plants. Three evaluations of the plants were done in 30-day intervals, in which the leaf dry weight, shoot dry weight and shoot mass were evaluated. After submitting the data to the analysis of variance, further analysis was done by the Tukey test for the qualitative data (cultivars) and polynomial regression for the quantitative data (doses of wood ash), with up to 5% probability. Comparing the two cultivars, the shoot dry mass production was higher in the Piatã cultivar, in all evaluated cut. As a function of the plant ash doses, the shoot dry mass data were adjusted to the quadratic regression model, with a maximum yield of 26.6 g pot-1 at the dose of 24.47 g dm-3 in the third cut. For leaf dry mass, the highest yield was obtained in the dose of 21.8 g dm-3 in the first cut, reaching 15.3 g dry mass of leaves per pot. In the third cut, the maximum yield of stalk dry mass was observed at the dose of 24.9 g dm-3. This experiment showed that plant ash influenced the dry mass production of the shoots, as well as leaves and shoots of the Piatã and Paiaguás grasses positively, inducing a maximum yield of between 20 and 30 g dm-3 of wood ash.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Industrial Manufactured Organic and Organomineral Fertilizers on Soil pH, Major Nutrients and Their Interactions at 90 Days of Incubation

Okubena Dipeolu Esther Adeyinka, Ayeni Leye Samuel, K. J. Oyebamiji

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/40137

Objective: Incubation study was carried out to determine the effect of organic fertilizer (OG) and organomineral fertilizer (OMF) on soil major nutrients in Ondo, South Western Nigeria.

Design: Organic and organomineral fertilizers were separately applied to 100 g soil at the rate of 0.25 and 0.5 g. The treatments were arranged on completely randomized design with six replications in the laboratory and incubated for 90 days.

Analysis: Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance and the means were separated with the use of Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT).

Results: Compared with control, OG applied at 0.25 and 0.5 g/100 g soil increased soil pH by 5 and 8% respectively. Organic fertilizer (OG) and organomineral fertilizer (OMF) at all rates significantly increased OC, between 12 and 23%, total N between 39 and 108%, available P (35-84%) and exchangeable K (5-17%). Application of 0.25 g OG, 0.5 g OG and 0.25 g OMF increased exchangeable Ca by 6, 30, and 0.02% respectively while Mg was increased by 52, 17 and 9.1% respectively. Application of 0.25 g and 0.5 g OMF increased exchange acidity by 17 and 33% respectively. Application of OG and OMF increased soil major nutrients beyond the critical level recommended for optimum crop production in south-western Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agroeconomic Performance of the Chive (Allium fistulosum) under Different Seedlings Management Methods

Marcelo Rodrigo Krause, João Nacir Colombo, Ismail Ramalho Haddade, Géssica Monteiro dos Santos, Thainá Schiffelbein Fiorotti, Caroline Merlo Meneghelli

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/40463

Due to the importance of chive cultivation and the lack of information in the preparation of the seedlings, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of number of tillers, and the presence or absence of cutting of shoots in the preparation of seedlings, on the agroeconomic performance of chives. The experimental design was a randomized block design, with three replications, in a split plot scheme, with the treatments in the plots applied following a 2 × 4 factorial with two levels for the cut factor (i.e., with and without leaf cuttings) and four levels for the "number of tillers" factor (2, 3, 4, and 5 tillers per seedling). Harvesting was done twice, at 73 and 100 days after planting (DAP). At each harvesting period, the plant length, fresh mass, dry matter mass, and diameter of each tiller were evaluated. In addition, the mass of fresh and dry matter of plants with and without commercial pattern and the number of tillers per plant were noted. In order to evaluate economic performance, the following indicators were used: gross income, net income, return rate, and profitability index. The highest mass values of the fresh and commercial dry matter of chives are obtained with five tillers per seedling, and the aerial part of the tillers are neither cut at the time of planting or at the time of harvesting at 100 DAP. Considering the economic indicators, it is recommended to harvest at 100 DAP, use two tillers per seedlings, and not cutshoots at the time of planting.