Open Access Short Research Article

Effect of Alternative Substrates and Trays for Production of Biquinho Pepper

Antônio Barbosa da Silva Júnior, Jackson da Silva, Moisés Tiodoso da Silva, Jadson dos Santos Teixeira, Artur Pereira Vasconcelos de Carvalho, Kleyton Danilo da Silva Costa, Jorge Luiz Xavier Lins Cunha

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/40464

This plant was cultivated long ago. However, the proper management of Biquinho pepper in relation to the production of the seedlings is unknown, being this a fundamentally important stage of the productive system. In which the quality of the seedling will directly influence the final performance of the plants, nutritional quality of the fruits, and in the time for seedling production. Thus, the present research had the objective of evaluating the effect of alternative substrates and trays for the production of Biquinho pepper seedlings. Five substrates and two types of trays were evaluated. Substrates were S1: Bioplant® commercial substrate (control); S2: earthworm humus; S3: soil; S4: 50% soil + 50% earthworm humus and S5: 75% soil + 25% earthworm humus, and tray types B1: with 98 cells, and B2: with 200 cells, in a completely randomized design, in the 5 x 2 factorial scheme, with four replications. For MSPA and MSSR it can be observed that substrates S1, S2, S4 and S5 had the best results, this was due to the accumulation of photoassimilates. Note that for both characteristics Bprovided the highest values, generating the greatest development of seedlings, S2, S4 and S5 substrates, combined with the B1 type of tray in the production of Biquinho pepper seedlings (Capsicum chinense) are recommended.


Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study between Meteorological Data from Conventional and Automatic Weather Stations in Espírito Santo, Brazil

Ramon Amaro de Sales, Wilian Rodrigues Ribeiro, Morgana Scaramussa Gonçalves, Evandro Chaves de Oliveira, Eduardo Monteiro Gelcer, José Eduardo Macedo Pezzopane, Sávio da Silva Berilli

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/40647

Meteorological variables are mainly monitored by conventional and automatic weather stations. Presently, conventional weather stations are now being replaced by automatic weather stations or being installed to complement and improve observations in areas where there is little or no observation. In order for this permanent replacement to take place, it is necessary that the exposure conditions of the sensors and the methodologies used to obtain meteorological data remain standardized. This study aims to carry out a comparative study of meteorological data from the conventional and automatic weather stations in two cities, São Mateus and Vitória, located in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Daily meteorological data series of maximum and minimum air temperatures, average relative humidity, rainfall and atmospheric pressure were used simultaneously from 2007 to 2016. The data from the respective stations were compared using frequency histogram, linear regression analysis, a coefficient of determination, Willmott index of agreement, bias (systematic error), relative root mean square error, confidence coefficient, and Pearson correlation coefficient. From the results, it was observed that the best data adjustments were found for maximum and minimum air temperature and atmospheric pressure, as for the other meteorological variables, there was a need for adjustment coefficients so as to ensure that the current historical series continue to exist in order to consequently replace conventional weather stations with automatic ones.


Open Access Original Research Article

Proteomic Analysis Reveals Differentially Accumulated Proteins in Banana Somaclonal Variants

Kalynka G abriella do Livramento, Lílian da Silva Fialho, Agenor Valadares Santos, Dárlan Einstein do Livramento, Thiago Bergamo Cardoso, Luciano Vilela Paiva

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/39857

Aims: To compare the protein profile of leaves from normal and giant banana plants to identify differentially accumulated proteins specific to each type.

Place and Duration of Study: Central Molecular Biology Lab (LCBM), between April and November of 2017.

Methodology: Protein samples were analyzed in triplicate by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The gels were stained with Coomassie Blue G250 and evaluated by the Image Master 2D Platinum 5.0 software. Differentially abundant proteins were treated with trypsin enzyme, and aliquots of each hydrolysate sample were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The molecular mass profile of each sample was subjected to comparative analysis using the MASCOT program and the NCBI database.

Results: Of the 36 differentially abundant proteins that were analyzed, 21 were identified as being related to root metabolism, photosynthesis, protein translation, and carbon and nitrogen fixation. Notably, glutamine synthetase was more abundant in the leaves of the giant banana plants.

Conclusion: This pioneering work used proteomic analysis to identify differentially abundant proteins in the leaves of normal and giant banana plants. Glutamine synthetase was revealed as a potential molecular marker that could be used to screen out plants of undesired variants. These results highlight some of the biochemical alterations that occur in banana trees with gigantism, providing a basis for future research on micropropagation programs and biofactories.

Open Access Original Research Article

Thinning of ‘Eva’ Apple with Plant Growth Regulators

Carolina Goulart, Gabriel Almeida Aguiar, Suélen Braga de Andrade, Flávia Saraiva Loy, Paulo Celso Mello-Farias, Marcelo Barbosa Malgarim

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/40560

Aims: The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects that cause the plant growth regulators, namely naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 6-Benzyladenine (BA) and Promalin® (6- benzyladenine (BA) with the gibberellic acid GA 4+7), on thinning efficacy and return bloom of ‘Eva’ apple trees.

Study Design:  The experimental design used was a randomized complete block design, with four replications, with two plants per treatment in each block, following a one-step scheme with 13 treatments for the thinning factor. Obtained results were submitted to analysis of variance, and means were compared by Tukey test with a 5% probability of error.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out during the agricultural cicles 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 in a commercial orchard located in the municipality of Morro Redondo, RS, Brazil.

Methodology: Plant growth regulators were applied in both cicles as follows: Promalin® was sprayed at the full bloom (80%) period at doses of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mL L-1; NAA and BA were sprayed in fruits with 5-7 mm diameter, at doses of 5, 10 and 15 mg L-1 and 50, 75, 100 and 125 mg L-1, respectively, and hand fruit thinning was performed after full bloom.

Results: Number of fruit per plant, the density of fruits by the trunk cross-sectional, yield per plant and the return of bloom in the second cycle were evaluated in the field. Fruit flesh firmness, total soluble solids, fruit diameter, fruit length and mean fruit mass were evaluated at Laboratório de Agronomia (LabAgro), Universidade Federal de Pelotas. With Promalin® at different concentrations, the results were statistically similar to the hand fruit thinning, so this procedure can be another alternative for thinning.

Conclusion: The plant growth regulator NAA reduced the harvesting load but caused a negative response and the plants formated of fruits small. The BA-based treatments were more efficacy for reducing fruits load, increased fruit size and accelerated the flowering return.

Open Access Original Research Article

Activity Rhythm of the Banana Weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

Richard P. Uzakah P. Uzakah

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/40436

Laboratory and field investigations in Kenya, East Africa, on the activity rhythm of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar indicated a nocturnal lifestyle for this pest. This behavior persisted even under constant dark (DD) condition during free-running trials. This proved an endogenously controlled, true circadian rhythm for the pest. Activity generally commenced sharply with the start of scotophase (6 pm) reaching peak at about 9pm and maintaining that level till about 4am, and gradually declined with the start of photophase (6am). Light was a major deterrent to the pest, as constant light (LL) condition completely suppressed activity. Temperature and light intensity correlated negatively with weevil activity (r=-0.726, P<0.01; r=-0.690, P<0.01 respectively), but correlated positively with relative humidity (r=0.821, P<0.001). These findings provide baseline information on the behavior of the pest, and will help to guide timing of future laboratory and field experiments on the pest.