Open Access Case Report

Economic Analysis of Corn Culture in Integrated Crop-Livestock-Forest System

Isabel Amalia Pereira Silva, Luciano Cavalcante Muniz, Carlos Augusto Rocha de Moraes Rego, Ilka South de Lima Cantanhênde, Joaquim Bezerra Costa, Juan López de Herrera, Raabe Alves Souza, Victor Roberto Ribeiro Reis, Eluardo de Oliveira Marques, Elimilton Pereira Brasil, Uelson Serra Garcia

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/40316

Aims: Aim was to analyze the economic viability of an integrated crop-livestock-forest (ICLF) system area, in the municipality of Pindaré-Mirim, State of Maranhão, Brazil, using the consortium of maize (Zea mays L.), forage species Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urograndis).

Study Design: Case study.

Place and Duration of Study: The work was developed in a Technological Reference Unit of ICLF of Embrapa Cocais, located in the municipality of Pindaré-Mirim - Maranhão, Brazil, between January 2016 and July 2017 and The experimental area was 3 ha, divided into three subareas: Treatment I - single corn planting; Treatment II – Barreirão system; and Treatment III - Santa Fé system.

Methods: In this work, the method of operational costs was used. The following economic performance measures were calculated: Gross income (GI), Gross margin (GM), Net margin (NM), Profit, Leveling point (LP) and Rates of return (RR). The economic indicators calculated were: Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Benefit-Cost Ratio (RBC). The data collected from the costs and revenues of each treatment were tabulated and treated with the help of Microsoft Office Excel.

Results: All the treatments presented a profit, being the Barreirão System the one that had better results, presenting P of 163 bags of maize ha-1, GI of US$ 1974, profit of US$ 780, LP in 99 bags, of 60 kg, of corn ha-1 and RR of 65.33%. Treatments I and III presented, respectively, P of 135 and 143 bags of maize ha-1, GI of US$ 1635 and US$ 1732, profit of US$ 504 and US$ 543, LP in 94 and 99 bags of corn ha-1 and RR of 44.63% and 45.67%.

Conclusion: The results obtained reinforce the importance of studying the economic feasibility of ICLF system to provide the investor with the conditions for better decision making.

Open Access Short communication

Effect of Nitric Oxide on Seed Germination and Seedlings Development of Carrot under Water Deficit

Guilherme Fontes Valory Gama, Priscila Torres Cunha, Camila Andrade Fialho, Daniel Teixeira Pinheiro, Igor Gonçalves de Paula

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/40439

Seed germination is strongly influenced by water deficit. Reduction of the osmotic potential and, consequently, of the water availability decreases the percentage of normal seedlings. It has been reported that nitric oxide (NO) is efficient in stimulating germination under both normal and stress conditions. The present work aims to evaluate the effect of exogenous application of NO, through a donor (SNP), on seed germination and on the development of carrot seedlings under water stress. Seeds of carrot cv. "Brasília" were submitted to water stress by PEG 6000, -0.3 MPa, and to SNP applications in the following concentrations: 100, 200 and 300 μM. The germinative assay was conducted at 20°C in germinator for 14 days. The first germination count (FGC), total germination (G), germination speed index (GSI), and dry matter of normal seedlings were evaluated. The SNP positively affected the germination and development of carrot seedlings under water stress. The most efficient concentration was observed at 100 μM.


Open Access Original Research Article

Vegetable Ash as Attenuate of Saline Stress in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

Leonardo Vieira de Sousa, Toshik Iarley da Silva, Antônio dos Santos Silva, Thiago Jardelino Dias, Ednardo Gabriel de Sousa, Joana Gomes de Moura, Welliton Barros de Magalhães, Álvaro Carlos Gonçalves Neto

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/40730

Aims: This work was developed with the aim to evaluate the development of irrigated peanut with salt water and application of vegetable ash doses.

Study Design: The experiment installed was in a completely randomized design, in a 5x4 factorial scheme, with five replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted between January and April 2015, in a greenhouse of the Federal University of Paraíba, in Bananeiras, PB, Brazil.

Methodology: Peanut seeds cultivar BR-1 was planted in pots (5 dm3). Irrigation with different electrical conductivities of irrigation water (0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 dS m-1) was used 20 days after emergence until the end of the cultivation and the four doses of vegetable ash (0.0 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 g kg-1 soil) were applied at the beginning of the crop. Were evaluated: plant height, leaf area index, root length, number of pods, number of branches, number of seeds, root dry matter, shoot, pods and seeds and total chlorophyll.

Results: The use of saline water influenced all variables analyzed in peanut regardless of the use of vegetal ash.

Conclusion: The use of vegetable ash was not efficient as an attenuating agent of the deleterious effect of irrigation water salinity on peanut.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Promotion by Azospirillum brasilense in the Germination of Rice, Oat, Brachiaria and Quinoa

Tauane Santos Brito, Daniele Cristina Schons, Giovana Ritter, Leila Alves Netto, Tatiane Eberling, Renan Pan, Vandeir Francisco Guimarães

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/39729

Aims: The inoculation with growth promoting bacteria in cultivated crops is an alternative to reduce the use of chemical compounds minimizing environmental damage and production costs. According to outstanding benefits associated with low researches with the crops in question, the objective of the present work was to evaluate the characteristics of the development of Oryza sativa, Avena sativa, Brachiaria 75 ruziziensis and Chenopodium quinoa inoculated with growth promoting bacteria Azospirillum brasilense.

Study Design:  The experimental design was completely randomized in a 4 x 4 factorial scheme with four replicates of 50 seeds.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, located at the Experimental Station of Horticulture and protected cultivation of the State University of Western Paraná at Marechal Candido Rondon city, 54º22’ W and 24º46’ S, and altitude of 420 m.

Methodology: At greenhouse, the species were inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense then sowed in autoclaved sand forming the following treatments: no inoculation, seed inoculation, foliar inoculation, foliar and seed inoculation. At seven days after sowing, the germination percentage was evaluated and at 21 days after emergence the morphological characteristics of the crop.

Results: The inoculation with bacteria favored seed germination of quinoa. However, for the crops of vetch and brachiaria, the statistic results of fresh weight accumulation were superior when inoculated. Some of the evaluated variables showed possible negative effects of inoculation, but these may be associated to the crops being sowed in an inert material, without the presence of necessary nutrients to plant development, such as nitrogen, which is an essential factor to obtain good results with the A. brasilense application.

Conclusion: For the quinoa culture the seed inoculation favored germination, increasing it by 17%, a result considered promising, even if the differences were not maintained throughout the seedling development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pre-storage Seed Hardening Effects on Germination, Vigour and Seedling Growth of Jute Species: Corchorus capsularis L. and Corchorus olitorius L.

M. Nasir Uddin, M. Moynul Haque, S. M. Mahbub Ali, M. Abdus Salam, Md. Nazmul Haque

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/38817

The study was conducted at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Salna, Gazipur from September 2008 to January 2009 to determine seed hardening effects on germination, vigour and seedling growth of jute seed. Jute seeds of two popular varieties namely CVL-1 under Corchorus capsularis L. and O-9897 under Corchorus olitorius L. were used in the study. Jute seeds were hydrated and dehydrated for 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours to induce seed hardening. Different physiological seed qualitative parameters of harden seeds were compared with unharden control seeds. Large sized seeds, highest germination and seedling root length, dry weight, vigour index and minimum mean germination time was obtained from control treatment. On the contrary, small sized seeds, lowest germination and seedling root length, dry weight, vigour index were recorded from the seeds of the 8 hours hydration. Maximum water absorption rate, electrical conductivity, mean germination time and minimum seedling shoot length were found from 8 hours hydrated seeds. The lowest water absorption rate, electrical conductivity was observed from 2 hours hydrated seeds. In case of two species, Corchorus capsularis showed better performance than Corchorus olitorius. Seedling vigour index was found to be positively correlated with viability and seedling dry weight. Similarly, seed size was found to be positively correlated with viability percentage, seedling dry weight and seedling vigour index. Leachate conductivity showed negative relationship with viability percent, seedling dry weight, seedling vigour index and seed size.