Open Access Short Research Article

Experience of Cold Maceration on ‘Touriga Nacional’ Wine Varieties in the Campanha Gaúcha Region, Brazil

Mariane Richardt Langbecker, Daniel Pazzini Eckhardt, Wellynthon Machado da Cunha, Vagner Brasil Costa, Marcos Gabbardo, Rafael Lizandro Schumacher, Suélen Braga de Andrade

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/40119

Aims: The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of cold pre-fermentative maceration in wines elaborated with the Touriga Nacional cultivar in the region of Campanha Gaúcha. 60 kg of grapes of the Touriga Nacional cultivar, with 19° Brix, were obtained from the municipality of Bagé -Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Study Design:  The microvinification was divided into two treatments, with the first treatment (T1) corresponding to traditional maceration carried out for 8 days at temperatures of 22°C, and the second treatment (T2) corresponded to the cold pre-fermentative maceration performed for three days, with temperatures of 5 to 8°C. Each treatment was replicated three times contented 4.6 liters of wine, finally.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out at the experimental winery and the physicochemical analyses were carried out at the TPOAV laboratory of the Federal University of Pampa (UNIPAMPA), Dom Pedrito campus, during the cycle 2016/2017.

Methodology: The first treatment (T1) corresponds to traditional maceration, where the maceration occurred along with the alcoholic fermentation, in which the skins remained in contact with the wine for eight days under a temperature of 22°C. The second treatment (T2) corresponds to the cold pre-fermentative maceration, where the must remain in a cold room (5 to 8°C) for three days, and afterward, the alcoholic fermentation was carried out in the presence of the grape skin for eight days, at the same temperature as the previous treatment. The variables analyzed were pH, total acidity (meq.L-1), volatile acidity (gL-1), alcoholic content (% v/v), reducing sugars (gL-1), gluconic acid (gL-1), phenolic compounds, color indices (420, 520 and 620 nm), color intensity (420 + 520 + 620 nm), and color tone (420/520 nm). The total polyphenols index (TPI), ethanol index (%), HCL index (%), total anthocyanins (mg.L-1), total tannins (gL-1) and gelatine index (%) were also analyzed. The wine sensory analysis was performed immediately after bottling.

Results: The alcoholic content of wines corresponding to the traditional maceration (T1) was higher than that observed in wines submitted to cold pre-fermentative maceration (T2). In relation to pH, T2 obtained a lower value than T1, conferring a more acidic character to the wine. The color tone of T1 was higher than T2. There was no significant difference in the other indices analyzed.

Conclusion: The cold pre-fermentative maceration in Touriga Nacional wines seems to give positive results, even if the statistical analysis evidenced significant results only for the wine sensory global pleasantness. The results indicate that other techniques should be evaluated to increase the extraction of the phenolic compounds. Further studies on the Touriga Nacional cultivar and the vinific.

Open Access Original Research Article

Combining Ability Studies in Lentil for Yield and Its Related Attributes

Supriya Majumder, M. Samuel Jeberson, N. Brajendra Singh, Ph. Ranjit Sharma, E. V. Diwakara Sastry

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/40685

To study the inheritance of some important yield contributing characters and yield through combining ability analysis, the eight parents of lentil genotypes were selected and crossed in diallel without reciprocals. The analysis of variance for combining ability revealed highly significant differences among crosses for all the characters studied. The σ2gca/σ2sca ratio was shown to be less than unity for most of the characters indicating the predominant role of non-additive gene action in the inheritance of these characters. However, for the characters days to first flowering and days to 50% flowering, the ratio was found to be more equal to unity indicating the importance of both additive and non-additive gene action in the expression of these characters. In case of GCA effects, DKL 50, L4147 and IPL 406 were identified as the most promising parents. On the basis of SCA effects, RLG 161 × IPL 406 was the most promising cross combinations for improvement of seed yield and no. of pods/plant. This heterotic cross having highly significant SCA effects for seed yield involved both the parents either as good general combiners or at least one good general combiner for seed yield. The manifestation of heterosis for seed yield was evidenced by superiority of hybrids ranging from 1.02 to 91.18% in the 24 crosses over better parent and from 1.02 to 46.94% in 21 crosses over standard check variety (PL 4). Out of 28 cross combinations, 20 crosses exhibited significant heterosis over their better parent as well as standard check. Overall on the basis of results of mean performance, including GCA and SCA effects and standard heterosis, PL 166 × DKL 50 and L 4147 × PL 4 were identified as the most promising cross combinations for improvement of seed yield in lentil.


Open Access Original Research Article

Biological Activity as an Indicator of Soil Quality under Different Cultivation Systems in Northeastern Brazil

Alceu Pedrotti, Enderson Petrônio de Brito Ferreira, Sara Julliane Ribeiro Assunção, Renisson Neponuceno de Araújo Filho, Raimundo Rodrigues Gomes Filho, Osmundo Soares de Oliveira, Francisco Sandro Rodrigues Holanda

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2018/v22i31952

The objective of this work was to evaluate biological indicators in areas of different land uses in the northeastern region of Brazil. Agricultural areas, located in the municipality of Simão Dias, were selected for the collection of deformed soil samples in the 0-10 cm layer. The areas studied were VNT - native vegetation of caatinga; CTA - pasture of Tanzania grass intercropped with algarobeira; MCF - corn intercropped with beans in conventional cultivation; MPC - corn in monoculture under conventional cultivation and MCM - corn in monoculture under minimum cultivation. The analyzes were total enzyme activity, urease activity, acid phosphatase, β-glucosidase, microbial biomass nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, soil basal respiration and metabolic quotient. The results were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test at a significance level of 5%. The results showed that the most conservationist systems of soil use provided better results through the microbiological indicators: total enzyme, ureic activity and soil microbial biomass. The indicators of acid phosphatase and β-glucosidase activity showed a significant reductions in the soil under anthropic management. They markedly in monoculture of the corn crop and conventional cultivation. The levels obtained are directly related to the different uses of the soil. We propose to make them suitable for soil quality assessment and, therefore, potential indicators for the analysis of environmental sustainability in semi-arid northeastern region Brazil. The results obtained reinforce the need for improvements in the management adopted so as not to compromise the quality of the agricultural soils of the semi-arid region.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phenotypic Plasticity of Sugarcane Genotypes under Aluminum Stress

Ciro Maia, Cleverson de Freitas Almeida, Paulo Mafra de Almeida Costa, José Ailton Gomes de Melo Júnior, Gustavo da Silveira, Luiz Alexandre Peternelli, Márcio Henrique Pereira Barbosa, Leonardo Lopes Bhering

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/40984

The expand agricultural production to new crop areas in the tropical regions is an important strategy to supply the huge demand for food and renewable energy sources. However toxic aluminum (Al) present in tropical soils is a limiting factor for agricultural production. The objective of this study was to identify Al-tolerant and Al-sensitive sugarcane genotypes, based on phenotypic plasticity, and to determine the correlation between the traits associated with Al stress. Eleven sugarcane genotypes were evaluated under non-stress and Al-stress conditions. The experiment was conducted using randomized complete block design with three replications in a factorial scheme. The study was carried out at Department of Crop Science, Federal University of Viçosa, between January and May 2014. Genetic variability regarding Al tolerance was observed among the sugarcane genotypes by phenotypic plasticity. Al-stress caused a reduction in the primary root length and in the shoot dry weight, but an increase in the lateral root length. There was a difference between the genotypes related to Al accumulation in the roots and shoot, suggesting the existence of distinct tolerance mechanisms. Based on phenotypic plasticity, genotypes RB966928, RB867515, RB008041, and RB935744 were characterized as tolerant, and RB937570, RB92579, and RB928064 sensitive to Al. We characterized genotypes and elucidated the correlation between features associated with Al-stress. The characterization of contrasting genotypes will be important for breeding programs involving sugarcane yield in regions subjected to stress.


Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Combined Ash and Terbuphos as Preplanting Corm Treatment to Manage Corm Borer Weevils (Cosmopolites sordidus) on Plantains and Stimulate Growth

Justin N. Okolle, Irene Lenyu Kiyo Mumah, Ngosong Christopher, Lawrence Tatanah Nanganoa, Oumar Doungous, Augustina Nwana Fongod

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/39564

The banana borer weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus is the most important pest that causes significant damage to banana and plantain in Cameroon. Most farmers in Buea Sub-Division, South West Region, Cameroon, believe that applying a combination of Terbuphos (Counter 10G®) and Wood Ash (from rubber plants) as seed treatments helps to protect suckers from the banana weevil and stimulate plant growth better than their sole forms. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of a bio-stimulant botanical pesticide (i.e., combined wood ash and oil palm bunch residue ash) and a conventional synthetic insecticide (Terbufos) applied as seed treatment to manage C. sordidus and stimulate the growth of plantains. Laboratory and field experiments (complete randomized blocks) were carried out at the research station of IRAD Ekona, Southwest Cameroon. The experimental setup comprised the following treatments; 5 g Wood Ash/5 g Terbuphos, 10 g Wood Ash/10 g Terbuphos, 30 g Wood Ash/30 g Terbuphos, 20 g Wood Ash only and 20 g Terbuphos only, and the control (neither ash nor Terbuphos) replicated three times each. The results demonstrated significant treatment effects (P=0.05 and F5,54), with differences in weevil mortality, repulsion, oviposition on the surface of the corm, number of larvae inside the corm and plant growth parameters for treatments with Terbuphos compared to the control. Meanwhile, ash treatments did not show any mortality effect on insects. However, Wood Ash showed non-mortality effects in the laboratory as compared to the control, although it was not significantly different (P=.05 and F5,54). 20 g Terbuphos only, followed by the combination of 5 g Wood Ash and 5 g Terbuphos per 1 L of water had the most effective results in enhancing growth parameters and survival of the plants (Percentage Coefficient of Infestation of 30.2 and 65.6 as compared to the 97.9 for the control).