Open Access Original Research Article

Variation of Soluble Sugar and Minerals Contents of Kernels from Germinated Nuts of Several Coconut Cultivars (Cocos nucifera L.)

Konan Brou Roger, Akely Pierre Martial, Yue BI Yao Clement, Amani N’guessan Georges

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/40114

Aims: This study aimed to assess the soluble sugars and minerals in coconut kernels during the fruits’ germination.

Place and Duration of Study: Marc Delorme Research Station for coconut, National Agronomic Research Center, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, between March and May, 2010.

Methodology: The germinated nuts kernels of three coconut cultivars, namely West African Tall (WAT), Malaysian Yellow Dwarf (MYD), and improved hybrid ‘PB121+’ were investigated. The soluble carbohydrates profile and the mail minerals were evidenced using chromatography methods.

Results: The overall coconut kernels studied recorded the same carbohydrate compounds, main of which are myo-inositol, sorbitol, glucose, fructose and sucrose. The result shows sucrose as the major carbohydrate in the germinated nut kernel whatever the coconut cultivar. The three coconuts also displayed the same mineral elements, especially sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, and potassium. They are more richer in potassium and phosphorus.

Conclusion: Thanks to the great soluble sugars and minerals contents, the germinated coconut kernel could be valorized as a good food resource or used as food additive for children suffering from mineral troubles.

Open Access Original Research Article

Salicylic Acid Effect on Ocimum basilicum L. during Growth in Salt Stress and Its Relationship between Phytomass and Gas Exchange

Toshik Iarley da Silva, José Sebastião de Melo Filho, Anderson Carlos de Melo Gonçalves, Leonardo Vieira de Sousa, Joana Gomes de Moura, Thiago Jardelino Dias, Juan Carlos Alvarez-Pizarro, Walter Esfrain Pereira, Rejane Maria Nunes Mendonça

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/40901

Aim: The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of salicylic acid on gaseous changes, growth and basil biomass (Ocimum basilicum L. cv. Cinnamon) submitted to saline stress.

Study Design: The experiment had conducted in a randomized incomplete block design (5x5- Compound Central Box) with five replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment had carried out at the Agrarian Sciences Center of the Federal University of Paraíba, Areia, PB, between May and August 2017.

Methodology: Basil plants were used cv. Cinnamon, where they were planted in pots of 5 dm3. Five electrical conductivities of the irrigation water (0.5, 1.3, 3.25, 5.2, 6.0 dS m-1) and five doses of salicylic acid (0.0, 0.29, 1.0, 0.71, 2.0 and 2.0 mM). The following variables had evaluated: gas exchange, fluorescence and chlorophyll index, growth and fresh basil phytomass.

Results: The increase of electrical conductivity of irrigation water negatively affected the growth (height of plants, number of leaves, stem diameter and leaf area), phytomass and gas exchange of basil. The application of salicylic acid had no significant effect, however, the application of this acid up to 1.0 mM positively affected most of the variables analyzed.

Conclusion: Our results show that 1 mM of salicylic acid applied during the basil plants growth in saline stress conditions, affected positively to biomass and gas exchange.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Substrate Treated with Tannery Sludge on Growth and Anatomy of Conilon Coffee Cuttings

Sávio Silva Berilli, Saulo Pireda, Fernanda Gomes Trindade, Alan Alvino Falcão Zooca, Ana Paula Candido Gabriel Berilli, Maura Da Cunha, Ramon Amaro de Sales

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/40670

This work evaluated the development and anatomy of the conilon coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre - Rubiaceae) seedlings on substrates with varying doses of dehydrated bovine tannery sludge. The experiment was divided into two stages; The first one was carried out in the field in a nursery of seedlings in the city of Colatina and the second was carried out in a Laboratory of Cell and Tissue Biology of Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Campos dos Goytacazes. During the field phase, the experiment was performed in randomly selected sections of a propagating nursery area in which each section received five treatments with twelve replicates per treatment. Seventeen replicates of seedlings were included in each treatment for a total of 85 plants per section and 1,020 plants for the whole experiment. Biometric analyzes and gravimetric evaluation of the development of seedlings were carried out at 120 days post - planting at the house of propagation of seedlings. For anatomical and ultrastructural analysis, plant material was processed in accordance with standard techniques for light and electronic microscopy. Despite increasing chromium levels in leaves with increasing doses of sludge, there was no impairment to plant development associated with other components of the tannery sludge treated substrate, such as humus and soil. Structural analysis revealed reduction and disruption of the palisade parenchyma and alteration to the shape and internal structure of chloroplasts. The use of tanning sludge in the proportion of 20% showed positive results, with potential of use in the substrate of Coffea canephoraseedlings.


Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Quality of Yellow Passion Fruit Seedlings Produced under Different Irrigation Depths

Robson Prucoli Posse, Francielly Valani, Ariane Martins Silva Gonçalves, Evandro Chaves de Oliveira, João Marcos Louzada, Waylson Zancanella Quartezani, Marta Cristina Teixeira Leite

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/40948

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of irrigation depths on growth and quality of yellow passion fruit seedlings produced in containers. The experiment was carried out under a greenhouse in individualized environments, with 2.20 m long and 1.10 m wide, isolated by transparent plastic canvas on the sides. The treatments consisted in the application of six daily irrigation depths, corresponding to 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 mm d-1 for the production of yellow passion fruit seedlings. The experimental analysis was used completely randomized design (CRD), where each treatment was composed of 48 plants, all useful, totalizing in the experiment 288 seedlings. Results showed that depths of 8 mm d-1 was more suitable for the formation of yellow passion fruit seedlings in containers, with higher water economy, obtaining similar growth and quality observed with depths of 10 and 12 mm d-1, which maximized the evaluated characteristics. Depths of 8, 10 and 12 mm d-1 presented Dickson quality index above 0.26 and, the best ratio between shoot dry weight and root system dry weight which should be 2.2 to 2.4 to characterize a quality seedling.


Open Access Review Article

Interrill Erosion in Semi-arid Soils: Impacts and Vegetation as an Attenuating Factor in Erosive Processes

Cristina dos Santos Ribeiro Martins, Ana Maria Maciel dos Santos, Antonio Elton da Silva Costa, Kleyton Danilo da Silva Costa, Jackson da Silva, Rejane Rodrigues da Costa e Carvalho

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/40090

Soil erosion is characterized as a serious environmental problem. Erosive processes depend on intrinsic soil characteristics, such as texture, structure, mineralogy, organic matter, as well as surface characteristics related to land use, vegetation cover, biological activity and edaphoclimatic interactions. In semi-arid regions, the problem is further aggravated by environmental conditions. Cultivation conditions in semi-arid environment are generally adversely affected conditions of fragile and poorly developed soils due to the occurrence of rainfall events, which are highly erosive. Besides precipitation, another factor of great relevance for soil erosion understanding is vegetation cover, because vegetation is an important factor in preventing soil erosion. Generally, vegetation attenuates erosion processes, mainly by reducing rainfall impact forces on soil, reducing runoff speed, increasing hydraulic roughness and water infiltration rates in soil, thus increasing its resistance to erosion.