Open Access Original Research Article

Germination and Development of 'Precocinho' Peach Embryos: Asepsis and Use of PPMTM in Culture Medium

D. C. Nascimento, M. Dini, S. Carpenedo, M. C. B. Raseira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41065

Embryo culture is a technique used to rescue immature embryos which would not germinate under natural conditions. However, one of the biggest problems of this process is the contamination by microorganisms. The objective of this work was to test asepsis methods and the use of PPMTM (Plant Preservative MixtureTM) in the culture medium for the germination and development of 'Precocinho' peach embryos. After extraction from the fruits, seeds were submitted to treatments with thimerosal, sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), flame sterilization and moxifloxacin hydrochloride, in culture medium with and without addition of PPMTM, totaling nine treatments. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 20 replicates per treatment. Three evaluations were performed: in vitro establishment (at 55 days of cultivation), embryo development (at 65 days of cultivation) and acclimatization (20 days after transplanting in the greenhouse). Six treatments did not had any contamination, on the first evaluation. However, 65 days after culture, the NaClO with PPMTM addition presented the best results for the variables analyzed. The average seedling survival was 81.6%, after acclimatization. The use of sodium hypochlorite with the addition of PPMTM is shown as the most efficient treatment, among the tested ones, for the germination and development of 'Precocinho' peach embryos.


Open Access Original Research Article

Agronomic and Energetic Potential of Sorghum Evaluated in Two Consecultive Crops

Vanessa Aparecida Pereira Batista, Vanucci Zilda Pereira Batista, Tiago da Silva Moreira, Angélica Fátima de Barros, Leonardo Duarte Pimentel

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41082

Aims: Was to evaluate the productive potential of three sorghum agronomic groups (biomass sorghum, saccharine sorghum and forage sorghum) in two cutting seasons (crop and regrowth) and to perform the energy (GJ/ha/cycle) characterization of biomass. Sample: Six sorghum cultivars in three agronomic groups: biomass sorghum (hybrids BD 7607 and BRS 716), saccharine sorghum (hybrids BD 5404 and BRS 511) and forage sorghum (hybrids BD1615 and BRS 655).

Study Design: This cultivars were evaluated in the block design at random, with six replicates and analyzed in time subdivided plots. Place and Duration of the Study: The experiment was conducted in the field being evaluated in two consecutive harvests, during the months of December/2014 to September/2015 and at the end of the cycle of each cultivar the plant evaluations were carried out. Methodology: Samples composed of ten plants randomly selected from the useful area of each plot were used: Harvest cycle, regrowth cycle, plant height, total fresh mass production, total dry mass production, percentage participation of the physical components in the total dry mass and total biomass production of the two cutting seasons. The upper calorific power of the physical components of the plants and the potential energy produced were determined.

Results: It was verified that the production of total fresh mass was higher in the crop with respect to the regrowth for all the crops and that the cultivars of sorghum biomass BD 7607 and BRS 716 obtained the highest results with total biomass production of 115 and 119 t/ha, respectively. The yield of the cultivars in regrowth was insignificant. The biomass sorghum cultivars BD 7607 and BRS 716 presented the highest yields of energy / ha with 815 and 654 GJ, respectively.

Conclusion: The amount of energy produced by each type of sorghum is influenced mainly by its agronomic performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Wheat Plants Reinoculated with Azospirillum brasilense

Caroline Galego Comar, Leandro Rampim, Débora Kestring-Klein, Vandeir Francisco Guimarães, Janaína Dartora, André Gustavo Battistus, Luana Fernandes Tavare, Lucas Guilherme Bulegon, Aline Kelly Pomini de Souza, Igor Moleta, Tauane Santos Brito

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41257

Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Azospirillum brasilense reinoculation in the initial development of wheat plants, from seeds submitted to inoculation with A. brasilense and different forms of nitrogen fertilization in the previous crop. 

Study Design:  The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2x2x4 factorial scheme with four replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in the municipality of Marechal Candido Rondon – PR. The weather is classified by Koppen as a Cfa, subtropical with well distributed rains during the year, hot summers and annual average temperature between 22 an 23°C.

Methodology: The first factor was characterized by seeds of cultivar CD 108 (Corbélia/PR) and CD 150 (Marechal Cândido Rondon / PR). The second factor was absence and presence of reinoculation with A. brasilense in the seeds, harvested in the previous crop (F2). The third factor was the fertilization in the previous crop: absence of fertilization to the haul and absence of A. brasilense at sowing (control); 120 kg ha-1 of nitrogen (urea) associated with A. brasilense; absence of fertilizer to the haul and application of A. brasilense and 120kg ha-1 of nitrogen with fertilizer NET (Nitrogen Efficient Technology) associated with A. brasilense. The morphometric variables were: aerial and root length (AL, RL), stem diameter (SD), number of roots and volume (NR, RV) and aerial and root dry weight (ADW, RDW). The inoculation carried out initially increased the performance of the wheat plants, approaching the Azospirillum treatments with fertilization, specifically regarding the similarity to AL, ADW, RL, NR, RV.

Results: The fertilization with 120 kg ha-1 of NET associated with A. brasilense contributes to the development of the plants aerial part of the cultivar CD 150, according to results of AL and ADW, reducing stem diameter, increasing root length and volume in the absence of reinoculation. While reinoculating, 120 kg ha-1 of urea associated with A. brasilense, provided greater number of roots, root length and volume. On the other hand, the CD 108 showed little interference in the aerial part of the plants with respect to fertilization treatments. For the cultivar CD 150, reinoculation increased shoot length, regardless of fertilizer and inoculant treatment, besides increasing root dry weight. For the cultivar CD 108, the reinoculation reduced root length and volume, and increased number of roots, regardless of the treatment of fertilization carried out during the initial harvest.

Conclusion: Reinoculation proved to be a process that interfered in the development of wheat plants, differently to cultivate CD 108 and CD 150.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Pesticides Application on Epigeic Fauna in Tomato Cultivation

Arthur Prudêncio de Araujo Pereira, Maurício Rumenos Guidetti Zagatto, Pedro Avelino Maia de Andrade, Adijailton José de Souza, Cesar Auguste Badji

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41008

Our comprehension on the effects of the pesticide on soil epigeic invertebrates, especially non-target organisms in tomato cultivation is still incipient. We aimed to study the epigeic fauna from spots with and without insecticide application in Brejão municipally, Pernambuco, Brazil. The experiment was composed of three treatments: Two tomato crop production (two tomato varieties SUPERA and TY10) under high insecticide application; and a native fragment in Atlantic Forest without insecticide application. Epigeic fauna was evaluated using pitfall traps, sampled in eleven periods. They were identified at the level of order and, when possible, family. We used univariate statistic to find the difference between treatments, and multivariate statistic to verify the dissimilarity between treatments. We sampled 2571 invertebrates, distributed within 7 orders. Even among those, Coleoptera was more frequently sampled. The orders that mostly discriminated the areas were Coleoptera and Diptera. Within the order Coleoptera, the families Lycidae, Nitidulidae, Tenebrionidae and Cantharidae had greater contribution to the areas separation. The pesticides application had a strong effect on non-target organisms, reducing the Coleoptera family’s richness when compared with the no-pesticides area (Treatment 3).


Open Access Original Research Article

Sustainable Nutrient Management in Aerobic Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn) under Rainfed Agriculture

Adikant Pradhan, A. Sao, S. K. Nag

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41164

The poor resource growers of southern Chhattisgarh have deprived of modern technologies of cultivation including externally managed inputs to augment the finger millet production. The low, negligible or no profit associated rainfed (aerobic) agriculture is still the only option owing to their socio-economic condition and physiographic location.The field experiment was conducted during the rainy (Kharif) seasons of 2011 and 2012 at Bastar district of Chhattisgarh with local finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn) locally known as ‘Mandiya’ for assessing the sustainability of finger millet productivity. The soil was sandy loam, low in organic carbon (0.43%), and available N (178 kg/ha), P (21.4 kg/ha), medium in K (179 kg/ha) available with almost neutral (pH 6.8) in reaction. Application of fertilizer and manure significantly increased plant height and flag leaf length; N:P:K @ 40:30:15 kg/ha + 7 t/ha or 50:40:20 N:P:K kg/ha + Rice husk ash 4t/ha gave significantly taller plants, flag leaf length, tillers/hill, filled grains/finger and finger length than other fertilizer treatments along with Rice husk ash (RHA). Application of NPK above the level of 30:20:10 kg NPK/ha + FYM or RHA did not significantly increase finger millet grain yield. Higher net returns were produced when lower levels of NPK was applied along with RHA.