Open Access Original Research Article

Enzymatic and Nutritive Evaluation of Zinc and Organic Fertilization on Field Maize Yields in Islamabad - Pakistan

Muhammad Sarwar, Ghulam Jilani, Muhammad Ehsan Akhtar, Arshad Nawaz Chaudhry, Zammurad Iqbal Ahmed

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/34346

Low fertility and organic matter contents in soil limit the nutrient bio-availability for crops, potentially leading to poor nutrition in the animals and human beings that consume those crops. This field study on maize production employed integration of organic and chemical fertilizers to determine their impact on plant enzymatic activities in relation to crop production, and nutrient dynamics in plants and soil. The treatments compared were: control (no application of N from any source); 100% N from fertilizer (FN); 75% FN + 25% N from organic manure (ON); and 50% FN + 50% ON. Further, all these treatments were superimposed by three levels of zinc (Zn) fertilizer, viz., 0, 4, 8 kg Zn ha-1.Conjunctive use of FN and ON with the ratio of 75+25 along with Zn application at the rate of 4 kg ha-1rendered the highest maize grain yield as compared to sole N application from chemical fertilizer. Similarly, enzymatic activities of nitrate reductase (NR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly affected with combined use of N and Zn. Nitrogen, phosphorus and zinc contents in diagnostic leaves of maize were also higher in organically substituted treatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spacial Variability of Balanced Indexes of Kenworthy(BIK) for Macro and Micronutrients on the Coffee Canephora

Abel Souza da Fonseca, Julião Soares de Souza Lima, Samuel de Assis Silva

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41211

The nutritional monitoring of coffee is essential for the construction and maintenance of efficient production systems since it brings several contributions to coffee cultivation and allows to consider the spatial variation present in the productions. The objective of this paper was to analyze and describe the spatial behavior of the coffee nutritional status based on the Balanced Indexes of Kenworthy (BIK). The experiment in southern Espírito Santo, in an area planted with seminal conilon coffee (Lat 20°37’31’’S e 41°05’22’’W). 140 points were georeferenced within a coffee crop, each sampling point contained three plants. Leaf samples were analyzed in order to determine levels of Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Sulfur (S), Boron (B), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu), and the BIK it was determined for all nutrients. The indexes and the yield (Prod) were analyzed by means of geostatistics. The diagnosis presented in this study indicated a higher nutritional limitation due to the deficiency for K, Zn, Fe and B for excess for Cu, showing the nutritional imbalance of the crop. With the exception of BIK for P, all variables presented spatial dependence adjusted to the spherical and exponential models.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Foliar Boron Application on Ginning Traits, Fiber and Seed Quality of Cotton

M. T. Rahman, M. M. Haque, M. G. G. Mortuza, M. S. Hossain, Rajesh Chakraborty

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41279

The experiment was conducted at Central Cotton Research Farm, Sreepur, Gazipur during cotton growing season of 2009-2010. Cotton variety cv. CB-10 was used under experiment. Eight levels of boron (0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.50 and 1.75, g L-1 water) were sprayed at reproductive stage of cotton as treatment. The design of the experiment was randomized completely block design (RCBD) with three replications. Data on ginning, fiber and seed quality were taken under present experiment. Result revealed that foliar application of boron has a significant influence on different traits of cotton. The highest (40.52%) ginning out turn (GOT) was recorded at the foliar application of B at 1.00 g B L-1 whereas the lowest (39.09%) ginning out turn was observed in case of foliar B application of 1.75 g B L-1 water. The highest lint yield (0.47 t ha-1) was obtained in 1.00 g B L-1 water than that of control. The highest germination (95.58%) was recorded at 1.00 g B L-1 water than that of control. Foliar boron fertilizer increased seed oil and protein content but it was insignificant. Numerically, the highest oil content (19.06%) was found at 1.25 g B L-1 water and protein (23.75%) at 1.75 g B L-1 water foliar spray.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Different Levels of Water Deficit on the Soil in Chrysanthemum Culture

Marjorie de Freitas Spadeto, Giovanni de Oliveira Garcia, Edvaldo Fialho dos Reis

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41550

The cultivation of irrigated ornamental plants has been growing in Brazil and gaining prominence in Espírito Santo. In general, these species are sensitive to variations in water levels in the soil, being necessary to obtain information that makes it possible to maximize production through adequate irrigation management. On that note, the objective of this paper was to evaluate the growth, productivity and quality of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorem cv. Faroe) with different levels of soil water deficit. The study was developed in a protected environment in the county of Venda Nova do Imigrante-ES. The experimental design was completely randomized, in the plot scheme subdivided in time with four replications, with five levels of soil water deficit (0%, 20%, 40%, 50% and 60%) and the subplot corresponded to six cuts along the phenological cycle of (30; 43; 57; 70; 83 and 95 days after transplanting). The height of the floral stem, the total dry mass, the floral button number and the quality components according to the Ibraflor were analyzed. There was an interaction between levels of soil water deficit (WD) and the days after transplanting (DAT), and the variables presented a significant response (p <0.05). The lowest values ​​of soil water deficit (0 and 20%) provided better development of chrysanthemum and plants with an A1 quality standard according to IBRAFLOR classification.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nursery Water Supply and Biomass Accumulation Relationships in Super Sweet Maize (sh2)

A. Riverti, E. Giardina, A. Di Benedetto

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41377

An agricultural intensification with maize transplanted crops for increasing food production is needed. However, super sweet maize water management during nursery has been designed from old genotypes in the 90´s decade, which indicate that a water stress during nursery did not change plant growth. The aim of this work was to determine the effects of the watering regime during nursery on biomass accumulation for three different super sweet sh2 maize hybrids to test the hypothesis that a different nursery water supply driven pre- and post-transplant super sweet maize biomass accumulation. Our results from seedlings watered with 100%, 75% or 50% daily evaporation are not in agreement with this previous report and showed that a water stress during nursery would be considered as a limiting source to decrease maize early biomass accumulation. A very early water stress during nursery decrease early post-transplant biomass accumulation, leaf area expansion and change photo assimilates partitioning. These results would force to a change in the commonly accepted water management when a transplant routine from plug trays was used for improving agricultural intensification.