Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating of Sediment Delivery Ratio on Spatial and Temporal Variabilities in Semiarid Watershed Brazil

Victor Casimiro Piscoya, Vijay P. Singh, José Ramon Barros Cantalice, Moacyr Cunha Filho, Sergio Monthezuma Santoianni Guerra, Cristina dos Santos Ribeiro, Renisson Neponuceno de Araújo Filho, Sandro Augusto Bezerra

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41408

Evaluation of sediment delivery ratio is important for determining watershed sediment yield. Rates of both interrill and rill erosion were calculated under shrub and uncovered Inceptisols conditions and were not observed to the presence by ravines and gullies in the watershed of Jacu River, in a semiarid region, Brazil. Direct measurement campaigns of suspended sediment and bedload were also carried out by means of the US DH–48 for collection of suspended sediment samples and US BLH–84used to collect samples bed load. The soil loss due to interril erosion under uncovered conditions was equal to 8.43 t ha-1 and was considered high, and the same was true for the values of rill erosion with erodibility equal to 0.0021142 kg N-1 s-1 and critical shear stress (τc) equal to 2.34 Pa. The mean value of sediment delivery ratio of Jacu watershed was equal to .165 and ranged from .29 in the year 2 8 to . 26 in 2 1 . This variation was associated with the natural variability of semiarid environment, indicating the necessity of assessment for a longer period to deepen our knowledge of sediment delivery ratio of the Jacu semiarid watershed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Different Organic Fertilizers Application on Soil Fertility Improvement, Growth and Fruit Yield Parameters of Pineapple (Ananas comosus L)

Emmanuel Ibukunoluwa Moyin-Jesu

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/37794

Field experiment were carried out in Akure in the rainforest zone of Nigeria to determine the efficacy of wood ash, pig, poultry and cattle manures on the soil fertility improvement, growth and fruit yield parameters of pineapple (Ananas comosus L) between 2008 and 2011 cropping seasons.The four organic fertilizer treatments were applied each at 6t/ha with a reference treatment NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer applied at 300 kg/ha and a control treatment, replicated four times and arranged in a randomized complete block design. The results showed significant increases (P<0.05) in the soil, growth and fruit yield parameters of pineapple crop under the different organic fertilizers applied compared to the control.  The highest values of pineapple fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, “D” leaf length, leaf area, plant height and number of propagules were obtained with the application of poultry manure followed by pig manure, wood ash, cattle manure and NPK 15-15-15 respectively.  Pineapple fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, “D” leaf length, leaf area, plant girth, plant height and number of leaf propagules increased by 30%, 29, 8.7, 31, 15.4, 21, 30% and 20% respectively with the application of poultry manure compared to NPK fertilizer.  Generally, the yield parameters of pineapple were higher in values in the second year of harvest than the first year under different organic fertilizer treatment compared to NPK fertilizer.  The highest values of soil organic matter (0.M) and moderate values of soil P, K, Ca and Mg were obtained under wood ash treatment application.  Moderate values of soil pH, K, Ca, Mg and N were also recorded under pig and cattle manures.  Nevertheless, the highest K/Mg, K/Ca and P/Mg ratios of 61:1, 49:1 and 640:1 respectively were obtained under NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer application compared to 2:1 K/Mg, 2:1 K/Ca and 23:1 P/Mg in the cattle manure treatment. The poultry manure applied at 6t/ha produced the best results in improving soil fertility, growth and fruit yield parameters of pineapple and this was because of its balanced macro and micro nutrients contents and the very low C/N ratio.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Pyroxasulfone to Control Amaranthus palmeri and Salsola kali in Peanut

Peter A. Dotray, Todd A. Baughman, W. James Grichar, Jason E. Woodward

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41505

Aims: Determine weed efficacy and peanut tolerance to pyroxasulfone in the Texas High Plains peanut growing area.                                                    

Study Design: Randomized complete block design with 3 replications.                           

Place and Duration of Study: Weed efficacy studies were conducted during 2013 and 2014 at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Extension Center near Halfway (34.188o N, 101.952o W) and near Seagraves (32.9369o N, 102.5409o W). Peanut tolerance studies were conducted during 2014 and 2015 near Brownfield (33.1042o N, 102.1615o W).

Methodology: Plots were four rows wide spaced 102 cm apart and 9.5 m long.  Herbicides were applied with a CO2 compressed-air backpack sprayer using Teejet Turbo Tee 11002 flat fan nozzles which delivered 140 L ha-1 at 207 kPa. In the weed efficacy studies, field plots were naturally infested with moderate Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) populations while Russian thistle (Salsola kali L.) populations were low to moderate. Weed control and peanut injury was visually estimated on a scale of 0 indicating no control and 100 indicating complete control or plant death, relative to the untreated control. In the variety tolerance study, pyroxasulfone alone at 0.09 and 0.18 kg ha-1 was compared with flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone at 0.07 + 0.09 and 0.14 + 0.18 kg ha-1, respectively applied PRE. This area was kept weed-free.

Results: Pyroxasulfone, applied either PRE or EPOST, provided at least 95% A. palmeri control while pyroxasulfone applied PRE followed by paraquat applied EPOST controlled Salsola kali 97%.  This was as good as all other herbicide treatments with the exception of either pyroxasulfone or dimethenamid-P plus paraquat applied EPOST and followed by imazethapyr applied LPOST, which provided only 58% control.

Conclusion: These results indicate that pyroxasulfone can be an effective herbicide for control of Amaranthus palmeri and Salsola kali in peanut. All peanut varieties evaluated showed excellent tolerance to pyroxasulfone.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth, Yield and Phytochemical Characterization of Small Watermelon Varieties in Hydroponics

Gabriel Nachtigall Marques, Roberta Marins Nogueira Peil, Lais Perin, Fernanda Carini, Cesar Valmor Rombaldi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/40514

Although the information about hydroponics for growing several vegetable crops is abundant, published data on small watermelon crop are scarce. Considering that the responses of the crop depend on the genotypic characteristics, the aim of this research was to study plant growth, fruit yield, basic composition and content of main phytochemical compounds of four small watermelon hybrid varieties (Extasy Hazeera®, Ki Kodama, Beni Kodama and Tayo Sakama®) grown in the hydroponic NFT system. The obtained results indicated that the varieties presented similar plant dry matter production and partitioning. On average, the fruits comprised 72% of the total dry matter production. The highest fruit yields were attained by ‘Extasy’ and ‘Ki Kodama’ (17.02 and 16.07 kg m-2). The fruits were very similar in pH, total soluble solids and total titratable acidity. In the pulp of variety ‘Ki Kodama’ (yellowish color), the lowest levels of ascorbic acid (AA=48.0 μg g-1), folic acid (FA=0.025 μg g-1), total lycopene (TL =8.0 μg g-1) and total carotenoids (TC=43.0 μg g-1) were detected; besides the lowest antioxidant activity (20.23%). On the other hand, the fruits of ‘Ki Kodama’ presented the highest ß-carotene content (31.0 μg g-1). Varieties of reddish pulp (‘Beni Kodama’, ‘Extasy’ and ‘Taiyo’) did not differ in phytochemicals content, with the following ranges: from 70.7 to 80.0 μg g-1 of AA; from 0.046 to 0.054 μg g-1 of FA; from 56.4 to 65.7 μg g-1 of TL; from 9.7 to 11.0 μg g-1 of ß-carotene and from 70.0 to 80.0 μg g-1 of TC. The results show that varieties present similar plant growth and basic composition of fruits, but ‘Extasy’ and ‘Ki Kodama’ demonstrate larger fruit yield potential. The fruits of the yellow pulp Ki Kodama variety present low levels of phytochemicals, except the high content of ß-carotene, and reduced antioxidant activity. Varieties of reddish color pulp have proper levels of phytochemicals in fruits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological Quality of Rice Seeds Stored in Different Environments and Packages

Artur Sousa Silva, Larisse Pinheiro Schmid, Fábio Mielezrski, Bruno Ettore Pavan

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41191

Aims: Evaluate the physiological quality of rice seeds during storage in different packages and environments, identifying the best condition to conserve the seeds.

Study Design: Completely randomized with four replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: Plant Science Laboratory and Genetics Laboratory of the Federal University of Piauí, Bom Jesus-PI, from April to October 2016.

Methodology: Seeds of rice were stored for 180 days in plastic bottles, kraft paper packaging, trifoliate paper packaging and polyethylene bags in cold and humid chamber (10°C and 85% RH), in a temperature controlled environment (25°C) and in an uncontrolled environment (21-36.4°C and 30-67% RH). The water content and vigor characteristics (first counting germination and germination speed index and electrical conductivity) were evaluated before (control), and at 90 and 180 days of storage, additional tests were also evaluated during these periods the Absolute growth rate of the root (AGRR), Absolute growth rate of the aerial part (AGRAP), Relative growth rate of the root (RGRR) and Relative growth rate of the aerial part (RGRAP).

Results: The values ​​of AGRAP and RGRAP were reduced, differing from the others, for the trifoliate paper packages (0.168 cm day-1) and polyethylene bag (0.168 cm dia-1) in environment 1 at 180 days of storage. The plastic bottles presented the highest values ​​for the characters 1st count (%) and germination (%) in all environments and storage periods. At the end of the storage (180 days) the environment with temperature control was the one that presented the best results of 1st counting of germination (%) and germination (%). At 90 and 180 days, the plastic bottles presented higher Germination speed index. The environment with temperature control presented better results for electrical conductivity (μS cm-1 g-1)

Conclusion: The environment with temperature control is efficient in storing rice seeds for 180 days using a plastic bottle package. During storage, the greatest changes in the physiological quality of rice seeds are verified in the cold and humid chamber environment and in the polyethylene bag package.