Open Access Original Research Article

Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Maize Productivity in the Guinea Savanna Agro-ecological Zone of Ghana

I. Kankam-Boadu, J. Sarkodie-Addo, F. K. Amagloh

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41305

Blanket fertilizer recommendation for maize (Zea mays, L.) production in Ghana was made in the 1960s. Due to changes in soil fertility and for economic reasons, farmers are adopting different fertilizer rates and in various combinations to produce maize. The efficiency of the applications and effect on maize productivity have been rarely investigated. The objective of the study was therefore to investigate maize productivity and the nitrogen use efficiency of the current recommended fertilizer rate for maize production and other rates and combinations of synthetic and organic fertilizers being applied by farmers in the Guinea Savanna Agro-ecological Zone (GSAZ) of Ghana. On-farm research was conducted at five locations during 2014 and 2015 cropping seasons. The fields were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with 16 treatments in three replications. The treatments consisted of the control (T1), eight synthetic fertilizer treatments alone (T2, T3, T4, T5, T10, T11, T12, and T13), six integrated treatments (T6, T7, T8, T9, T14, and T15), and T16 which involved the application of only Sulphate of Ammonia as top dressing. The combined application of poultry manure and synthetic fertilizer recorded significantly (P < 0.05) higher maize grain yields of 2.15 – 2.76 t/ha. Treatments that involved the combined application of synthetic fertilizers and poultry manure recorded the least Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE) values with T6 recording the lowest figure of 2.14±1.17. NUE was lower for synthetic + organic treatments because the total N was much higher for these treatments resulting in increased yields but at a decreasing rate. The NUE was significantly lower in 2015 than in 2014. Kanpong and Mognegu significantly (P < 0.05) recorded the highest (19.3±0.68) and lowest (4.27±0.75) NUE, respectively. Optimum maize grain yield can be obtained through the application of integrated nutrient management in the GSAZ of Ghana.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantification and Qualification of Tannins from Residues of Forest Species Hymenea courbaril Duke and Bowdichia virgiloides Kunth

Felipe Silva Amorim, Leandro Calegari, César Henrique Alves Borges, Clebson Lima Cerqueira, Maílson Pereira de Souza, Francisco Tibério de Alencar Moreira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41335

This research aimed to compare yield and quality of tannic powder extracts from forest residues from jatobá (Hymenea courbaril Duke) and sucupira preta (Bowdichia virgiloides Kunth.) generated from a joinery. Tannic extract was obtained with an adapted soxhlete extractor. Extract was analysed about its extraction yield (Y%), total solids (TS%), humidity (H%), corrected soluble and insoluble solids (SS%, IS%), tannic and non-tannic contents through formaldehyde and skin powder method (TCf%, nTCf%, TCp%, nTCp%), ashes content (%), density (g cm-3) and pH. The experimental design was entirely casualized, with variables compared through F test. Jatobá presented yield of 15.87%, and black sucupira of 17.09%. For TCf% and nTCf%, jatobá presented 74.66% and 12.66% respectively, and black sucupira presented 64% and 12.66% respectively. Species showed potential for the production of tannic extract, with highlight to jatobá.

Open Access Original Research Article

Riparian Buffer Strip Width Design in Semiarid Watershed Brazilian

Victor Casimiro Piscoya, Vijay P. Singh, Jose Ramon Barros Cantalice, Sergio Monthezuma Santoianni Guerra, Moacyr Cunha Filho, Cristina dos Santos Ribeiro, Renisson Neponuceno de Araújo Filho, Edja Lillian Pacheco da Luz

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41471

Studies assessing technologies to design riparian strips using plant covers, based on sediment yield in river basins, are required for environmental protection. The removal of semi-shrubby, native vegetation in the Brazilian semiarid region, has contributed to the degradation of semiarid basins. The aim of this study was to design a riparian strip for the Jacu River in the semiarid region of Pernambuco as a function of sediment yield. Experiments were conducted during the years 2008-2011 in the Jacu River basin at Serra Talhada, Pernambuco State, Brazil. The sediment yield in the Jacu River channel was obtained by measuring suspended and background solid discharge. The riparian strip width estimated in the riparian areas of the Jacu River basin was 15 m. It was concluded that for this study, the sediment yield time and observation of hydrological data were important factors for determining the riparian strip width with greater security.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Ethrel, Polythene Bags and KMnO4 on Storage Life of Banana cv. Grand Naine

Manroop Kaur, Amarjeet Kaur

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41600

Banana is an important fruit crop with high productivity. “GRAND NAINE’ variety of banana has been popularized because of high yield potential with quality fruits. Post harvest life of banana fruit is short for its perishable and climacteric nature. Various physico-chemical changes occur during ripening. A research study was carried out in the laboratory of the Department of Horticulture, Khalsa College, Amritsar during 2016-2017 to study the effect of ethrel, polythene bags and KMnO4 on storage life of banana cv. Grand Naine. The experiment comprised of seven postharvest treatments viz., ethrel 300 ppm, ethrel 400 ppm, ethrel 600 ppm, perforated polythene bags, unperforated polythene bags, unperforated polythene bags with KMnO4 and control. Results revealed that Among all the treatments, KMnO4 treated banana showed minimum (2.3%) total weight loss at 8th day of storage. The highest fruit color (7), pulp to peel ratio (2.41%), fruit taste (9.10), moisture content in pulp (76.60%), total soluble solids (21.97%), total sugars (18.09%) and reducing sugars (12.10%) were observed in the treatment of ethrel 600 ppm.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Diversity of First Sugarcane Accessions of Reunion-Ivorian Origin Preselected at One-Row Stage in Ferké, Ivory Coast

Yavo Y. M. Béhou, Crépin B. Péné, Adolphe Zézé

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41862

Aims: The overall study objective was to contribute to sugarcane yield improvement in Ivory Coast. Specific objective was to evaluate the genetic diversity of Reunion-Ivorian first sugarcane genotypes preselected at one-row stage for further advanced selection trials of 1st and 2nd steps to be carried out under Ferké commercial field conditions.

Study Design: It was conducted on Ferké 2 experimental station under full covering sprinkler irrigation in northern Ivory Coast. The genotypes were preselected in 1st ratoon among 985 clones planted in single rows of 3 m per clone with 1.5 m of row-spacing following families. Genotypes were not replicated except for the control variety SP70/1006. That one was replicated several times every 5 rows to ease agronomics observations of clones in comparison with the control. Quantitative as well as qualitative traits observed at the age of 10 months were subjected to a series of multivariate analyses.

Results: It came out that quantitative traits which better explained diversity of genotypes were the following in decreasing order: flowering rate, number of millable stalks/3m, stalk diameter, and stalk height. These phenotypic traits highly contributed to genotypes discrimination into 8 clusters which suggested a good genetic diversity among all 148 preselected accessions. Four best represented clusters (63.5 % of total) comprised 20-30 individuals each, whereas less represented clusters (36.5 %) involved 11-15 individuals each.

Conclusions: Quantitative traits most relevant in variety clustering were high tillering, moderate tillering, erect canopy which were associated respectively with clusters G1, G7 and G2. As for lodging characters, they were associated with 6 clusters all together, namely G2, G3, G4, G5, G6 and G8. The genetic variability as shown was a prerequisite for further advanced selection trials with limited number of accessions to be conducted under commercial field conditions.