Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Status of Cowpea Plants Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium and Azospirillum brasilense in Associated with Phosphate Fertilization in Soil Amazonian

Érica de Oliveira Araújo, Munir Mauad, Hugo César Tadeu, Heleno Alexandrino de Lima Filho, José Augusto Figueira da Silva, José Avelino Cardoso

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42145

Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) plays an important role in cowpea cultivation. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of inoculation and co-inoculation of rhizobacteria associated with phosphate fertilization on biometric parameters and absorption and use of nutrients by different cowpea genotypes. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 4x3x2 factorial scheme, corresponding to four rates of phosphorus (0, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha-1 of P2O5), absence, inoculation and co-inoculation with rhizobacteria; two cowpea genotypes (White and Butter), with four replicates. The results revealed variability between the cowpea genotypes with respect to efficiency and response to phosphorus application. Cowpea plants inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. showed increments of approximately 22.66%, 23.58%, 55.31%, 47.95%, 65.66% and 20%, respectively, in N contents in the roots, leaves, shoots and in the plant, N absorption efficiency and N use efficiency. Inoculation of Bradyrhizobium sp. associated with 120 and 160 kg ha-1 of P2O5 increases plant height and P and S contents in the shoots of cowpea plants. Increased P rates lead to increment in dry matter production and N, P and K contents in cowpea plants. Coinoculation of Bradyrhizobium sp. and Azospirillum brasilense did not positively influence any of the variables studied over the effects of Bradyrhizobium sp. alone. Cowpea has potential to be used as green fertilizer after a short period of cultivation, due to the accumulation of nutrients in its leaves and shoots.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Variability of Deviation from Optimum Percentage in Conilon Coffee

Abel Souza da Fonseca, Julião Soares de Souza Lima, Mariana Lima de Jesus, Samuel de Assis Silva

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41817

The objective of this work was to identify the structure of the spatial dependence of the percentage deviation of the optimum (DOP) and its correlation with the productivity in the conilon coffee crop. The data were collected at the experimental farm of INCAPER, county of Cachoeiro de Itapemirim-ES. Leaves were collected in the middle third of each plant, two pairs of leaves of lateral branches, at the 4 cardinal points. The leaves were sent to the laboratory to determine the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn. To evaluate the nutritional status, the DOP indexes of macro and micronutrients were classified as optimal (DOP = 0), deficiency (DOP <0) or excess (DOP> 0). The nutritional balance index (ΣDOP) was calculated showing a nutritional imbalance in the crop. The order of nutrient limitation (Fe> K> Zn> S> Mg> N> Ca> Cu> P> B> Mn) shows deficiency for Fe, K, Zn and S and excess for Mn. The nutritional balance evaluated through the DOP indexes presented spatial variability with a defined structure adjusted to the exponential and spherical semivariogram models.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Water Quality and Ammonium Sulfate on Glyphosate Efficacy

Misha R. Manuchehri, Peter A. Dotray, J. Wayne Keeling, T. Shay Morris, Gaylon D. Morgan, Jason E. Woodward

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41723

Aims: The objectives of these studies were to 1) determine west Texas water hardness values, 2) determine if glyphosate efficacy is affected by water carrier source, 3) determine if there is a benefit using reverse osmosis water as the carrier when applying glyphosate, and 4) determine if ammonium sulfate will improve glyphosate control regardless of water quality.

Study Design: All trials were arranged in a randomized complete block design.

Place and Duration of Study: Four studies were conducted in 2012 near Lubbock, TX, two using winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and two using Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) as the target species. Two winter wheat studies also were conducted in 2013 near Lubbock, TX.

Methodology: Water from five pre-selected sources, ranging in total water hardness from 185 to 1046 ppm plus an RO water source (11 ppm), was used as carriers for the following four herbicide treatments: glyphosate applied at 430 and 860 g ae ha-1 with and without dry ammonium sulfate.The rate of AMS was 2 kg 100 L-1 of water.

Results: West Texas water hardness values were highly variable, ranging from 91 to 1046 ppm. Water source affected glyphosate control in seven of the ten assessments over six trials conducted in two years. The reverse osmosis water source (11 ppm) was the top performing water source or was in the top performing group of sources in five of six assessments where water source impacted results. However, in several instances, water sources with cation concentrations over 800 ppm also were in the top performing group of water sources.

Conclusion: In all assessments, glyphosate at 860 g ae ha-1 and ammonium sulfate improved glyphosate efficacy, regardless of plant species tested. Continued work needs to be conducted in order to further evaluate the use of reverse osmosis water as a spray carrier for glyphosate. 

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Different Levels of Inclusion for Forest Restoration Assessment

Diogo José Oliveira Pimentel, Ana Licia Patriota Feliciano, Luiz Carlos Marangon, Marília Isabelle Oliveira da Silva, José Nailson Barros Santos, Andréa de Vasconcelos Freitas Pinto

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42016

Aim: The aim of this work is to compare two sampling methods (called survey A and B) with different inclusion criteria to evaluate floristic composition, species richness and horizontal structure of a five-year-old forest restoration area.

Methodology: The area with a total of 32.21 ha is located in a Tropical Rainforest region. Survey A included individuals with circumference at breast height (cbh) ≥ 6 cm while in survey B, the minimum cbh was ≥ 15 cm.

Results: Forty-six species have been found in survey A belonging to 40 genera and 21 families. In survey B, only 33 species were found, belonging to 30 genera and 15 families. Regarding species richness, method B did not reach the theoretical asymptote in relation to A, leading to underestimation. The number of individuals and absolute density of survey A and B, we found 891 individuals or absolute density of 1,782 ind. ha-1 and 166 individuals or absolute density of 332 ind. ha-1, respectively, representing a difference of 81.4%. Also, significant differences have been observed for cbh, height and crown projection, where method A presented higher potential to express the data.

Conclusion: The present study confirmed the hypothesis that the inclusion limit cbh ≥ 15 cm, commonly used for assessing forest restoration processes in recently established areas, provides biased estimates about different ecological processes, such as floristic composition, species richness and forest structure. It is therefore recommended to use a lower cbh for tree measurements in assessments of low-aged tropical rainforest restoration areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnoknowledge: Use of Medicinal Plants in Communities

Alberto Salgado Bandeira, Valéria Fernandes de Oliveira Sousa, Gisele Lopes dos Santos, Marília Hortência Batista Silva Rodrigues, Patrício Borges Maracajá, Rosilene Agra da Silva, José Jaciel Ferreira Dos Santos, Michel Douglas Santos Ribeiro

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41939

Aim: To evaluate the traditional knowledge as for the use of medicinal plants in the municipal districts that integrate the 14th Administrative Area of the Company of Technical Support and Rural Extension of the State of Paraíba.

Methodology: This study was promoted by a field research, of descriptive character with a qualitative approach. As instrument of data collection, a questionnaire was previously structure, containing objective and subjective subjects. 30 people were interviewed in the rural area and in the headquarters of each municipal district, in other words, in the nine municipal districts, totaling, like this, 315 interviewees. The data were analyzed as to the relative frequency of the medicinal plants being calculated in the Microsoft Excel Program.

Results: 82 species were mentioned with medicinal potential, distributed in 52 families, with 52 therapeutic indications, among them, anti-inflammatory activity with 32 species, anti-pains (analgesic) with 21 and antiseptic with 19 species, nineteen species were referred for hepatic upset and in the symptomatic treatment of influenza, and some species possessed more than a therapeutic indication.

Conclusion: The species more mentioned were: Herb cidreira, mallow, marcela, mint, angry Lavender, Grass saint, mastruz and cumaru. The families of plants used for the treatment of diseases with larger representativeness were: Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Verbenaceae, Malvaceae, Anacardiaceae and Euphorbiaceae.