Open Access Original Research Article

Morphophysiology of “Crioulo” Cashew Rootstock Seedlings under Saline Water Irrigation and Potassium Silicate Doses

Reynaldo Teodoro de Fatima, Reginaldo Gomes Nobre, Leandro de Pádua Souza, Geovani Soares de Lima, Hans Raj Gheyi, Evandro Manoel Silva, Elcimar Lopes da Silva, Sabrina Gomes de Oliveira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42289

Aims: This work aimed to evaluate the effects of saline water and potassium silicate on the physiological and morphological changes of “Crioulo” cashew rootstock seedlings.

Study Design: The experimental design was the randomized block, corresponding to five levels of irrigation water electrical conductivity – ECw and five doses of potassium silicate, with four replicates and two plants per plot

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in a greenhouse at the Center of Sciences and Agri-Food Technology of the Federal University of Campina Grande, Campus of Pombal – PB, Brazil, between August and November of 2017.

Methodology: The five levels of irrigation water electrical conductivity – ECw (0.3; 1.0; 1.7; 2.4 and 3.1 dS m-1) were prepared by the addition of NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2, maintaining an equivalent proportion of 7:2:1, respectively, in the water from the local supply system (0.3 dS m-1); the five doses of potassium silicate (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg L-1) were applied on the leaves, using the  commercial product Quimifol Silício, composed of 10% silicon (Si) and 10% potassium (K), completely soluble in water. The plant material was the “Crioulo” cashew genotype, adapted to semi-arid conditions, obtained from a commercial plantation area located in the municipality of Severiano Melo – RN, Brazil, and widely used in the production of rootstocks in seedling production nurseries of the region.

Results: Irrigation with 1.7 dS m-1 water causes acceptable reduction of 10% in the morphophysiology of “Crioulo” cashew rootstocks seedlings; the estimated potassium silicate dose of 524,78 mg L-1 led to improvements in the physiology, morphology and quality of the cashew rootstocks seedlings.

Conclusion: The "Crioulo" cashew rootstocks seedlings present moderate resistance to the salinity of the irrigation water; irrespective of salinity of irrigation water, fertilization with potassium silicate improves the morphophysiological characteristics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Water Availability and Wood Ash Doses on the Productive Characteristics and Water Usage of Potted Gerbera

Carina Sthefanie Lemes e Lima Bär, Marcio Koetz, Edna Maria Bonfim-Silva, Tonny José Araújo da Silva

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42049

The use of irrigation and wood ash are technologies that have been interfering positively in the experimental conduction of some crops in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the production characteristics and water use in cultivated potted gerbera plants under water availability and wood ash doses. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, belonging to the Agricultural and Environmental Engineering course of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, in the city of Rondonopolis, Brazil (16°28’ S, 50° 34’ W, and altitude of 284 m). The statistical design adopted was randomized blocks, in a 5x5 factorial scheme, with five percentages of water availability (40, 60, 80, 100 and 120% of pot capacity) and five doses of wood ash (0, 8, 16, 24 and 32 g dm-3) with four replicates, totaling 100 experimental units. The variables evaluated were: number of total and open chapters, fresh leaf mass, floral stems and chapters, and water consumption and efficiency. The data of the evaluations were submitted to analysis of variance and when significant to the regression test, up to 5% probability. For water availability close to 80.6%, gerbera plants have higher production characteristics. The highest water consumption is obtained with a value lower than the pot capacity. The use of wood ash in gerbera plants promotes increased production and maximum retention capacity and water use efficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Initial Efficiency of Commonly Used Practices to Control Soil, Runoff and Nutrient Losses from Maize and Banana Based Systems in the Lake Kivu Basin

M. W. Adidja, J. G. M. Majaliwa, M. M. Tenywa, S. Bashwira, E. Adipala

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/23636

This study was carried out to determine the initial efficiency of commonly used practices to control soil erosion from Maize and Banana based cropping systems in Lwiro micro catchment in the Lake Kivu basin. Soil, runoff and nutrient losses were determined using runoff plot approach. Instrumentalised runoff plots of 2X15m were installed on maize intercropped with beans and banana gardens. Two soil erosion management practices, namely; Tithonia and contour bunds were tested on Maize intercrop with Beans and mulch for Banana. The experiment included a control practice for each crop. Each treatment and control was replicated four times. Runoff and soil loss were estimated for each rainfall event and aggregated on seasonal basis. Nutrient (N, P and K) losses were estimated per season. Results of the long and short rains of the first year of experimentation show that soil and runoff losses did not significantly change with practices and seasons (P>0.05) for both banana and maize based systems. Soil and runoff losses ranged from 15.73 to 32.93 Mg/ha, and from 168.14 to 322.17 m3; respectively. Nutrient losses varied with practices and seasons (P<0.05) and ranged from 54.68 to 112.34 Kg/ha, 87.7 to 409.4 Kg/ha; 24.5 to 94.22 Kg/ha for K, N and P; respectively. Soil and runoff losses ranged from 8.99 to 20.6 t/ha, and from 85 to 152 m3; respectively. Only K losses changed significantly with season (P<0.05) and ranged from 17.8 to 53.9 Kg/ha under Banana cropping system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Salicylic Acid on the Physiological Quality of Salt-Stressed Cucumis melo Seeds

Jackson Silva Nóbrega, Francisco Romário Andrade Figueiredo, Leonardo Vieira de Sousa, João Everthon da Silva Ribeiro, Toshik Iarley da Silva, Thiago Jardelino Dias, Manoel Bandeira de Albuquerque, Riselane de Lucena Alcântara Bruno

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41811

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological quality of seeds of two melon varieties (Cucumis melo) in response to saline stress and salicylic acid treatment.

Study Design:  The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five different water salinities and five doses of salicylic acid, with four replicates of 50 seeds.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Seed Analysis, located in the Center of Agricultural Sciences of the Federal University of Paraíba, Areia-PB, Brazil.

Methodology: The experiment was conducted with two varieties of melon (Cantalupensis and Eldorado 300). Creole melon seeds (cucumber melon - Cantalupensis) were extracted from completely mature fruits produced in a farmland located in Santa Luzia, PB, Brazil. The Eldorado 300 seeds were purchased in the local market of Areia, PB, Brazil. A completely randomized experimental design was used with five water salinities (ECw = 0.0, 1.74, 6.0, 10.26 and 12.0 dS m-1) and five salicylic acid doses (SA = 0.0, 0.29, 1.0, 1.71 and 2.0 mM), with four replicates of 50 seeds. The following variables were evaluated: percentage of germination, first germination count, percentage of abnormal seedlings, germination speed index, mean germination time, seedlings dry mass and the root, shoot and seedling length.

Results: Salicylic acid treatment was not effective in attenuating the harmful effects of saline stress on seed germination. Cantalupensis cultivar is more tolerant than the Eldorado 300 cultivar.

Conclusion: Saline stress has a negative effect on the germination and vigor of melon seeds. Salicylic acid was not effective in attenuate the deleterious effects promoted by water salinity.

Open Access Review Article

Pecan: from Research to the Brazilian Reality

Mauricio Gonçalves Bilharva, Carlos Roberto Martins, Jonas Janer Hamann, Diniz Fronza, Rudinei De Marco, Marcelo Barbosa Malgarim

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41899

Cultivation of pecan trees has increased in Brazil, mainly in the south, in recent years. Despite investments – triggered by the demand and promising market– made by both small and large farmers, actual productivity has still been below its potential. Lack of technical information not only about the culture of pecan trees but also about the development and adequacy of technologies, which are appropriate to the edafoclimatic conditions found in the south of Brazil, corroborate low productivity and poor investments in the sector, mainly preventing production from supplying the internal market. Some pioneering initiatives in the south of Brazil and positive experiences in neighboring countries, such as Argentina and Uruguay, have shown the potential to cultivate pecan in the region. This study aimed at introducing and analyzing the development of researches, general characteristics of the culture, the evolution of cultivation and dissemination of pecan trees in Brazil, mainly in the south of the country.