Open Access Original Research Article

Temporal Variability of Granulometric Fractions of the Organic Matter of an Ultisol in a Transition Area

Fabiane Pereira Machado Dias, Ésio de Castro Paes, Fagner Taiano dos Santos Silva, Sidileide Santana Menezes, Letícia da Silva Ribeiro, Júlio César Azevedo Nóbrega

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41790

The absence of vegetation cover associated with the increase of the intensity of use and soil management promotes the medium and long-term degradation of its chemical quality. The management practices adopted can determine if the soil will act in the environment as a source or drain of carbon to the atmosphere, determining the environmental impact of the agricultural activity. These contents, besides varying in the space, vary in the time, therefore the understanding of the variability of the organic carbon in the soil is essential for the improvement of the management practices in the organic systems of production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of the granulometric fractions of soil organic carbon and its total stocks over three years of cultivation in different systems of organic production management. The areas studied were: (SAF) agroforestry system, (MAR) passion fruit cultivation in monoculture, (ABA) pineapple cultivation in monoculture and (BAN) banana cultivation in a consortium. For comparison purposes, an area under native forest system (MN) was also evaluated. For each system of use, soil samples were collected at depths of 0.0-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m in four replicates, two collections were done with an interval of three years. The TOC contents were significantly influenced by the isolated effect of the management systems and by the interaction between system and year of management, only in the depth of 0.0-0.20 m. In general, there was a reduction of EstS in all management systems, at a depth of 0.20-0.40 m, with the exception of the ABA system. This shows a higher susceptibility of the oxidation of organic matter in this soil layer. The levels of C-Am were shown to be more sensitive to changes in surface management only. The results showed that the absence of plant cover and the lack of species diversification promoted a decrease in the soil organic carbon stocks. And that the reestablishment of the carbon contents and stocks does not happen quickly and are influenced by the practices and time of handling.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance and Meat Quality Attributes of Broiler Chickens Fed Onion Skin Extract and Onion Skin Meal Supplemented Diets at the Finisher Stage

Olubunmi O. Olusola, Tella Azeez Kehinde, Olasunkanmi Akanbi Akeem

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41515

Aims: This study was carried out to investigate the meat quality attributes of broiler chickens fed onion skin extract and onion skin meal supplemented diets at the finisher stage.

Study Design: The experiment employed a complete randomized design; all data generated were subjected to analysis of variance, P=0.05.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, between October and December, 2016

Methodology: Four experimental diets were formulated such that treatment 1 contained the basal diet with synthetic antioxidant, treatment 2 was a basal diet without any antioxidant, and treatment 3 was basal diet supplemented with 30g/kg of onion skin extract while treatment 4 contained basal diet supplemented with 100 g/kg of onion skin meal. One hundred and sixty eight broiler birds were randomly assigned to four treatments of six replicates each at seven birds per replicate. They were raised for 8 weeks. At the expiration of the experiment, three birds from each replicate were randomly selected, tagged, fasted, weighed and slaughtered. Carcass and organs were obtained and weighed. Samples for cooking loss, pH and cooking yield were taken. Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) was employed to assess the shelf stability of the product.

Results: Data obtained showed no significant difference (P≥0.05) in feed intake for all the dietary treatments. However, the feed conversion ratio was significantly higher (p≤0.05) in treatment 4 compared to others as treatment 3 recorded the best feed conversion value (3.31). Treatment 2 had the highest (P≤0.05) TBAR value. While there was no significant difference (p≥0.05) in pH of all the treatments, treatment 2 had the lowest cooking loss (25.18%) and was significantly different (p≤0.05) from other treatments.

Conclusion: This finding revealed that diets supplemented with onion skin extract had the best feed conversion ratio which resulted in higher final body weight and weight gain. Onion skin extract could prolong the shelf life of broiler meat better than onion skin meal and synthetic antioxidant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Limitation of Relative Transpiration and Growth of Arabic Coffee in Response to Water Deficit

Wilian Rodrigues Ribeiro, Morgana Scaramussa Gonçalves, André Alves Pinheiro, Vinícius Agnolette Capelini, Daniel Soares Ferreira, Edvaldo Fialho dos Reis

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41818

The objective of this study was to evaluate the limitation of transpiration and growth of arabica coffee plants as a function of the reduction of water availability through the methodology of the fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW). The study was conducted in a greenhouse of the Center of Agrarian Sciences and Engineering of the Federal University of Espírito Santo, located in the municipality of Alegre, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, with coordinates 20º45' S, 41º32' W and altitude of 269.0 m, in a factorial scheme 3x2, being the period of induction of the water deficit in three periods (P1= at 45 days after planting, P2= at 75 days after planting and P3= at 105 days after planting) and replenishment of water in the soil on two treatments (T0- without water deficit and Td-water deficit induced until the plants reach 10% of the relative transpiration of the T0 treatment), in a completely randomized design with eight repetitions. The following variables were evaluated: relative transpiration (RT), mean leaf area (MLA) and mean plant height (MPH). It was concluded that the younger the plants are subjected to water deficit, the more sensitive they are to the effects of the phenomenon, and the first variable to be affected by the deficit is MPH. With the plant's maturation, there was a gradual gain of resistance, which in some cases resulted in responses between treatments statistically equal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Magnitude and Spatiotemporal Variation of the Erosion on the Slope of the Lower São Francisco River, Northeastern Brazil

Igor Pinheiro da Rocha, Francisco Sandro Rodrigues Holanda, Mario Monteiro Rolim, Janisson Bispo Lino, Renisson Neponuceno de Araújo Filho

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41944

Streams are under erosive processes such as hydrodynamic adjustment. After the construction of a sequence of hydroelectric dams for power generation, the São Francisco River experienced an increase in erosion processes, mainly on the riverbank of its lower course. The objective of this work was to quantify the magnitude and spatial and temporal variation of the erosive process. For this purpose, the erosion pins method was used on a vertical slope composed of Entisol, which was monitored monthly during the year 2013, alongside the acquisition of hydrological and meteorological data. The total soil loss was 35.26 m3, while the monthly magnitude of soil loss ranged from 0.00 to 24,300 mm yr-1, totaling 475,396.1 mm yr-1. The hydrodynamic and geometric characteristics of the watercourse, such as discharge and the proximity of the riverbank from the thalweg, are cited as the main causes of this erosion process.

Open Access Short Research Article

Strategies for Taro (Colocasia esculenta) Irrigation

Gustavo Haddad Souza Vieira, Guilherme Peterle, Jéssica Broseghini Loss, Gabriel Peterle, Carlos Magno Mulinario Poloni, João Nacir Colombo, Paola Alfonsa Vieira Lo Monaco

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41516

This study aimed to evaluate the taro (Colocasia esculenta var. São Bento), in response to different irrigation strategies. The experiment was carried out in 2015, at the Instituto Federal do Espírito Santo, Santa Teresa Campus, Brazil, at an altitude of 130 m above sea level. A drip irrigation system was installed, which was divided into subunits, to irrigate the plots individually, according to the treatments. The irrigation intervals established for each treatment were based on the water availability for the crop (F factor), which, in turn, was related to the soil water depletion. Thus, irrigation was performed when the water in the soil was depleted equivalent to 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% of the total available water, respectively, for the treatments T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, in a randomized block design, with four replications. Meteorological data were used to estimate the crop water demand, and the daily water balance was calculated using spreadsheets. We evaluated the applied water depth, the yield of commercial cormels and the water use efficiency by taro, due to the F factor. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and regressions. The increase of the F factor and the consequent application of light and frequent irrigation promoted the reduction of the irrigation depths and favored the taro development and yield, besides supporting the highest values of water use efficiency. Thus, these management conditions may be recommended for its cultivation.