Open Access Original Research Article

Introduction of Sasakawa Technology on Irrigated Maize (Zea mays L) Production in Kurmi Mayolope, Hong. of Adamawa State Nigeria

Toungos Mohammed Dahiru

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42039

The study was conducted in Kurmi Mayolope, Hong Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria, Sasakawa technology was introduced on irrigated maize (Zea mays L) production. A hybrid maize variety OBA 98, MR (white), obtained from skill acquisition Centre and local variety retained by farmers were used. The specific objectives of the study described the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents: determines the problem encountered by farmers in maize production, demonstrated how to increase yield through the use of Sasakawa technology on irrigated maize and best agronomic practice and examined the performance of Sasakawa technology for increase yield of maize production. Data collected were analysed and presented in percentage performance over that of farmers. The result revealed that the significant Technology used in Sasakawa that increased yield was spacing, the rate of fertiliser application and single seed sowing per hill. The yield components determined were number of cobs per plant, number of seed per cob and cob weight. Sasakawa technology experimental plots were observed to have significantly outperformed the farmers plot in a number of cobs per plant, number of seeds per cob, cob weight, cob length and grain yield. It is therefore recommended that spacing of 25 cm x25 cm between plants and 75 cm x75 cm between rows, burying (sowing) of fertiliser at the recommended dose and other inputs such as seeds and herbicides should be made available in time and at a subsidized rate to farmers by Government and Nongovernmental organizations. Effective extension services should also be extended to farming areas to enlighten and intensify the use of Sasakawa technology to the farmers for maize production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Irrigation Water Quality from Major Water Sources in Ondo and Osun States, Nigeria

O. O. Olubanjo, A. E. Alade

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41558

Aims: Irrigated agriculture is dependent on the adequate water supply of usable quality. This study was conducted to determine the quality and suitability of different water sources for irrigation in Ondo and Osun states. The water samples were collected from rivers, dams, streams, bore-holes and hand dug wells within the two states. The physicochemical properties of the sampled water were determined; physicochemical properties including pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, total dissolved solids, major ions (Ca, Mg, K, Na) were analysed in the laboratory and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), sodium percentage (SP) and kelly's ration (KI) were calculated from the significant cations studied for the criteria of irrigation water quality and suitability for irrigation.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was performed on main rivers, streams, wells and boreholes in Ondo and Osun states.

Methodology: Samples were collected in Ondo and Osun states, the samples were collected in clean PVC bottles washed and rinsed with distilled water and HNO3 dilute acid in eight different points across the two states as follows; in the reservoir (Dams), rivers, bore-hole and hand dug wells all channels to farms.

Results: The study revealed that the values of EC, pH, TDS, TSS, varied from 31 to 1062 mmhos/cm, 5.0 to 7.4, 42.83 to 280.96 mg/L, 28.06 to 203.46 mg/L and turbidity; 0 to 3.5 mg/l, hardness 34 to 160 mg/l and amount of Ca, Mg, K and Na varied from 38.61 to 71.64, 25.3 to 60.17, 17.26 to 35.00 and 21.08 to 33.47 and SAR, SP, KI values varied from 2.98 to 5.74, 30.58 to 49.24, and 0.18 to 0.49 respectively.  The total viable count for the microbial present in the surface water sample has the highest value of 5.5x10-3CFU/100ml in the Owena water sample. The presence of faecal indicator bacteria and fungi in the water source suggest pollution raising the possibility of the presence of pathogenic micro-organisms in the water sources, therefore adequate water treatment must be ensured before discharge.

Conclusion: The result shows that there is a higher concentration in groundwater than those in surface water; this implies surface water is good and suitable for irrigation and if groundwater is to be considered as a source for irrigation, proper irrigation management must be required and water analysis for adequate and effective irrigation practice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Elaboration of an Open Source Prototyping Platform for Salubrity Monitoring in Agricultural Machinery

Fernando Ferreira Lima dos Santos, Guilherme de Moura Araújo, Lucas Ferreira Lima dos Santos, Leticia Cardoso Madureira Tavares, Rodrigo Nogueira Martins, Flávio Castro da Silva

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42187

Agricultural operations are generally carried out in places subject to abrupt environmental changes. In order to provide improvements in the work environment of tractor operators, it is of the utmost importance to monitor and make changes in the work environment. The present work aims to elaborate a low cost, flexible and easy to handle prototype, geared towards monitoring some parameters associated with the salubrity conditions of the agricultural tractor operator’s working environment, which are: sound pressure level, ambient temperature and relative air humidity. The developed prototype acquire data through low-cost sensors and interprets the analyzed parameters comparing their values ​​to those recommended by the Brazilian Regulatory Standards 15 (Unhealthy Operations and Activities) and 17 (Ergonomics), in order to perform a salubrity analysis of the local environmental conditions and to issue visual alerts to the operator when any parameter is outside the range of interest. Industrial reference equipment, such as a decibel meter and a thermo hygrometer, were used in order to calibrate the sensors, which are responsible for monitoring the above-mentioned parameters. For purposes of precision evaluation, the data acquired by both systems (sensors and the reference equipment) were subjected to the Tukey test at a 5% significance level (P < 0.05). It was concluded that the elaborated prototype is effective to monitor cab temperature, relative air humidity and noise level. Also, it has potential for deepening in the monitoring of continuous and intermittent noise and calculation of the dose of noise on the operator throughout his/her working day. In addition, the prototype proved to be successful due to its low-cost (88.6USD), fast data acquisition, flexibility and relatively simple assembly and operating methodology. The prototype’s code is available in the GitHub platform.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Soil Fertility and Productivity on Wheat Crop

Kamlesh Kumar Yadav, S. P. Singh, Nishant ., Vineet Kumar

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41533

A field experiment was conducted during Rabi season 2013-14 and 2014-15 on sandy loam soil to study on crop research Centre Chirori of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology; Meerut utter Pradesh (India). The results revealed that application if 125% recommend dose fertilizer of NPK were significantly higher plant height at different stages, number of spikelet's spike-1,Number of grains spike-1, Test weight (g) than the other treatments during both the years. Application of 125% recommended dose fertilizer recorded significantly highest grain yield 49.73 to 47.75 q ha-1 during 2013-14 & 2014-15, respectively. Among the various treatments where 125% NPK was applied proved to be superior and it statistically at par with T2 (100 % NPK) and T11 (75 % NPK + vermicompost @ 2.5 t ha-1 + phosphorus solubilizing bacteria + Azotobacter), in terms of growth, yield attributes and yields during first & second years. Moreover, the application of organic in integration with inorganic fertilizers could also maintain the soil fertility which is much important for sustainable crop production. The organic carbon and available NPK in the soil after harvest increase with the combined application of organic and inorganic with Biofertilizer. Integration of 75% NPK with vermicompost @ 2.5 t ha-1 + phosphorus solubilizing bacteria + Azotobacter was found better by improving the residual soil fertility status after the harvest of the wheat crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Attributes Related to Natural Succession in a Permanent Preservation Area– A Study for Brazilian Atlantic Forests

Gabriela Salami, Eduardo da Silva Daniel, David Miquelluti, Mari Lucia Campos

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41640

The study of physical and chemical characteristics of associated to different vegetation cover is very important for understanding how the soil can influence the behavior of the forest. 

Aims: This study aimed to relate soil attributes under pine cultivation and natural regeneration of vegetation in permanent preservation areas (PPA).

Methodology: For this purpose, a regenerated PPA (RA) and a non-regenerated PPA (NRA) had their vegetation and seed bank characterized, respectively. In different soil depths, chemical and physical attributes of the soil were analyzed.

Conclusion: Ca content and soil density (SD) were variables that can be best discriminated soils of both areas. High soil density (SD), poor soil drainage and lack of propagules of woody species determined the establishment of the herbaceous vegetation in the RA. Lower SD and better soil drainage allowed the establishment of arboreal and shrub species of the Mixed Ombrophilous Forest in the RA.