Open Access Short Research Article

Influence of Date of Sowing and Number of Cuttings on Leaf Yield and Quality of Seed in Palak (Beta vulgaris var. bangalensis)

Sumati Narayan, Ajaz Malik, M. I. Makhdoomi, Ambreen Nabi, K. Hussain, F. A. Khan

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42076

A field experiment was conducted to ascertain the Influence of Date of sowing and number of cuttings on leaf yield and quality of seed in Palak (Beta vulgaris var. bangalensis) in Experimental Field, Division of Vegetable Science, SKUAST-K Shalimar during three consecutive rabi seasons of 2013-14, 2014-15 and 2015-16. The experiment comprised of three sowing dates viz first fortnight of October, 2nd fortnight of October and 1st fortnight of November and four levels of cutting i.e no cutting, one cutting, two cutting and three cutting. The observations were recorded on Green leaf weight (q/ha), 100 seed weight (g), seed yield (q/ha), Germination %, Vigour Index I & II and Economics of Production. The date pooled over three years reveals a significant effect of sowing dates and number of cuttings on leaf and seed yield. Results obtained indicated that highest green leaf yield can be obtained by sowing in the first fortnight of October and three cuttings, however highest seed yield can be obtained by sowing in the second fortnight of October with two cuttings. Benefit-cost ratio for various treatments was also worked out. D2C1 treatment i.e sowing in 2nd fortnight of October and one cutting gave a highest benefit cost ratio of 3.66:1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Morphometry, Chemical Composition and Physiological Quality of Castor Seed of Different Cultivars and Orders of Racemes

Jerffeson Araujo Cavalcante, Natali Almeida Evangelista Pereira, Kilson Pinheiro Lopes, Lucian Alex dos Santos, Joseano Graciliano da Silva, Augusto Henrique Maciel Silva, Nander Ferraz Hornke, Anielson dos Santos Souza

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42456

Aims: It was aimed to evaluate the physical, physiological quality and the chemical composition of castor seeds of different cultivars originating from different orders of racemes.

Study Design:  The experimental design used was the completely randomized design with four repetitions.

Place and Duration of Study: The present research was developed in the Laboratory of Seed Analysis and Seedlings in the Center for Food Science and Technology of the Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG), Campus Pombal, PB, Brazil, between the period of March to November of 2011.

Methodology: The study was conducted using seven cultivars of castor seeds, BRS Nordestina, BRS Energia, BRS Paraguaçu, AL Guarany 2002, IAC Guarani, IAC 80 and IAC 202, from different racemes. The seeds were submitted to the tests of humidity, the weight of thousand seeds, germination, first germination count, biometry, chemical composition, emergence and emergence speed index.

Results: It was not observed significant differences for the variables of ash content, seed length, emergence and emergence speed index. For the other variables, significant differences were observed by the Tukey test at 5% probability.

Conclusion: The seeds originated from primary racemes presented greater weight of thousand seeds and physiological quality. The protein content of seeds originated from primary, secondary and tertiary racemes was variable according to cultivar. The seeds originated from primary and secondary racemes presented a greater oil content.  The seeds width was influenced by the racemes order only in the cultivars of BRS Nordestina and BRS Paraguaçu, where that seed originated from secondary and primary racemes presented greater width, respectively. The seeds originated from primary and tertiary racemes presented greater thickness, however, it was variable according to cultivar. The order of raceme interferes in the physical and physiological quality, as well as in the chemical composition of the castor seeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Do Flood Hazards Affect Risk Attitudes? An Experimental Analysis in Agriculture-Dependent Communities in Cameroon

Roland Azibo Balgah

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42141

Problem: That flood hazards affect agriculture is common knowledge. However, how flood hazards affect risk attitudes is not fully known. This work models the influence of flood hazards on risk attitudes in agriculture-dependent communities.

Study Design: We elicit risk attitudes among victims and non-victims from three agriculture-dependent flood hazard communities in Cameroon. 

Methodology: Data collection took place in December 2016, using a combination of structured questionnaires and field experiments. Collected data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0.

Results: Hypothetical results from questionnaires showed similarity in risk aversion between victims and non-victims prior to flood hazards (78.4% and 69.3% respectively, p=.40). Similar attitudes were practically reported immediately after the flood hazards. However, higher but insignificantly different risk taking attitudes were observed for both victims (54.2%) and non-victims (68%) after the first experimental game (p=.30). Overall, risk taking increased in game 2. Both victims and non-victims demonstrated higher risk taking attitudes in the second iteration (≈72%  and 90% respectively), with more non-victims (22%) becoming risk takers than victims (18%). Wins in the first iteration could have largely influenced the increasing risk taking attitudes observed in game 2.

Conclusion: We contend that flood hazards can directly enhance risk taking attitudes among flood victims in agriculture-dependent communities, based on the desire to overcome negative impacts and restore livelihoods. Non-victims rather take risks to improve their capacity to buffer future flood hazards and avoid similar suffering of victims. Further research is however needed to ground these contentions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adjustment of Sampling Grids for Soil Penetration Resistance, Bulk Density, and Soil Moisture Mapping

Rodrigo Nogueira Martins, Ailton Rodrigues de Oliveira, Leticia Thália Silva Machado, Fernando Ferreira Lima dos Santos, Wagner da Cunha Siqueira, Juliana Aparecida de Souza Santos

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42681

There is still a lack of information in the literature regarding the sampling grid size and its effect on the accuracy of soil attributes spatial variability mapping. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the influence of different sampling grid sizes regarding accuracy for soil penetration resistance (SPR), soil bulk density (SBD) and soil moisture (SM) spatial variability characterization, as well as the correlation between these attributes. The study was conducted in a 5.7 ha Red Yellow Latosol area in Januária, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Soil samples were taken at the 0.00–0.20 m layer, using a regular sampling grid of 20x20 m. (145 points). Other two grids (41 and 21 points) were derived by deleting lines or lines and points from the initial grid. SPR, SBD, and SM data were subjected to descriptive statistics and geostatistical analyses. Furthermore, the similarity of the thematic maps and correlation among these attributes were analyzed through the relative deviation coefficient (RDC), and Pearson's correlation matrix. The reduction of the grid density (number of points) increased the estimation error for SPR, SBD, and SM, especially when using only 21 points (grid C), whereas, denser grids (Grid A and B) showed maps with greater similarity (accuracy). The SPR levels are directly related to SBD levels, in other words, the highest SPR levels in the area occurred due to higher SBD levels, as well as the lowest values, whereas SM levels were inversely proportional to SPR values since wetter areas presented lower SPR levels. Also, denser areas are directly correlated with higher levels of SM in the study area. In essence, only the grid with 25 points per hectare (20x20 m) is recommended for mapping these attributes spatial variability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Climate, Soil, Topography and Variety on the Terroir and on Coffee Quality

Samuel de Assis Silva, Daniel Marçal de Queiroz, Nerilson Terra Santo, Francisco de Assis de Carvalho Pinto

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41499

The study of terroirs is related to the understanding of a certain small territory, in which different local factors provide products with distinct qualities. This study had the objective to evaluate the influence of climatic, soil and topographic factors on the terroir and also on the quality of the coffee that is produced in these areas. The study was performed on two coffee producing terroirs. The climate's influence was evaluated regarding relative humidity, temperature, solar radiation and photoperiod. The soil at the terroirs was characterised based on its textural physical attributes and its formation and source material. The quality of the coffee was assessed through the analysis of its physical characteristics and sensory analysis. The results from the textural soil fractions were submitted to descriptive statistical analysis, followed by geostatistical analysis. They were also submitted to a separation test in order to identify significant differences in the various terroirs. The data were subjected to correlation analysis between quality and the variables that characterise the terroir. The data were also submitted to principal component analysis to describe the association of the variables. The soil's mineralogical and physical attributes did not differ between plantations, they did not exert an influence on coffee quality or the terroirs of production. Coffee quality is dependent on the terroir, and this, in turn, on the altitude, in plantation position and micro-climatic characteristics.