Open Access Original Research Article

Interactive Effect of Soil Mulching and ISAREG Model Based Irrigation on Watermelon Production

Kleiton Rocha Saraiva, Thales Vinícius de Araújo Viana, Solerne Caminha Costa, Francisco Marcus Lima Bezerra, Clayton Moura de Carvalho, Raimundo Rodrigues Gomes Filho

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42422

Even with the growing scenario of water scarcity, in the Northeastern semi-arid region, the irrigation management is still not properly managed, resulting in the waste of scarce water resources in the region. The ISAREG model has been used in several countries, being able to assist in the simulation of irrigation. In addition, the ISAREG model quantifies irrigation depths at different percentages of storage, increasing irrigation efficiency. Another way to reduce water loss in agriculture is through the use of soil cover, which is a simple technology and whose benefits over crop production and productivity are irrefutable. Added to this is the fact that interactions among these applications can amplify the effects. The objective of this study was to compare the irrigation propositions generated from ISAREG model with the actual irrigation management adopted by the farmers of the Jaguaribe - Apodi Irrigation District, Brazil. In addition, field experiments were performed to assess the influence of different irrigation and soil cover conditions on fruit development and yield of watermelon These field experiments were performed after field surveys with farmers in a randomized complete block design with subdivided plots and four replicates. The treatments consisted of the combination of four irrigation propositions (three ISAREG propositions: M1 = 100%, M2 = 80% and M3 = 60% of Available Water Capacity in Soil, and M4, irrigation depth used by irrigators), and four subplots, the uncovered soil (C0), covers with rice husks (C1), with white mulching (C2) and with black mulching (C3). The data were subjected to analysis of variance, and when significant, regression analysis, averages test and trend graphs were performed. The irrigation depths of 365.2 mm and 410 mm with a black mulching resulted in the highest numbers of fruits per plant (1.6). From the results, it was concluded that the farmers do not practice the correct management of the irrigation, because the farmers irrigated more water to a greater irrigation depth as indicated by the ISAREG model (100% of the Available Water Capacity in Soil) throughout the watermelon cultivation. In general, plants irrigated with 100% of available Water Capacity and on soils covered by rice husk and white mulching showed better productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytogenetic Activity of Root Meristems of Rice in Response to Conditioning in Carrot Extract and Salinity

Sheila Bigolin Teixeira, Stefânia Nunes Pires, Gabriele Espinel Ávila, Diogo da Silva Moura, Rejane Peter, Vera Lucia Bobrowski, Sidnei Deuner

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42487

Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the role of Daucus carota L. root extract in cytogenetic parameters of Oryza sativa L. seeds exposed to salinity.

Study Design:  The experiment installed was in a completely randomized design, in a 2x4 factorial scheme, with four replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted between March and June 2017, at the Laboratory of Seed Physiology and at the Laboratory of Genetics both belonging to the Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), in Capão do Leão, RS, Brazil.

Methodology: Seeds of cultivars BRS Querência (indica subgroup) and BRS 358 (japonic subgroup) were soaked at concentrations of 0% (water), 25%, 50% and 100% of aqueous extract of carrot for 48 h. Then, were germinated on germitest paper moistened with solutions of 0, 25, 75 and 150 mM NaCl and placed in a germination chamber under a mean temperature of 25°C. The evaluation of mitotic index was performed in meristem cells of rice roots when they reached 0.5 to 1 cm in length.

Results: An increase in mitotic index was observed with the use of increasing doses of extract for cv. BRS 358, mainly by increasing the number of prophase cells. The salinity affected the two cultivars differently, with increase in the mitotic index for cv. BRS Querência and decrease for cv. BRS 358, but in this, the use of 50% of extract increased the index of cell division even with the increase of salinity. In addition, salinity above 75 mM caused an increase in the number of chromosomal alterations when associated to use of 50% of extract.

Conclusion: The results show that there is positive effect of the use of carrot extract on the mitotic index of root meristems of rice, cv. BRS 358, when germinated in the presence or absence of salt stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability of Sugarcane Clones as Affected by Endemic Diseases at One-Row Screening Stage in Ferké, Northern Ivory Coast

Yavo M. Béhou, Crépin B. Péné

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42266

Background: Sugarcane is a major commercial crop grown in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, including West and Central Africa. Across this region, smut, leaf scald and pokkah boeng are considered as endemic diseases, the first two being economically important.

Aims: The overall study objective was to contribute to sugarcane yield improvement in Ivory Coast. The specific objective was to evaluate the diversity of susceptible sugarcane genotypes mainly in first ratoon crop to three major endemic diseases under natural infection, namely leaf scald, smut and pokkah boeng.

Methodology: The study was carried out over 2 seasons (2016-18) as plant and first ratoon cane at Ferké 1 experimental station under full covering sprinkler irrigation in northern Ivory Coast. Treatments were composed of 863 sugarcane genotypes split into 39 families planted at single row density. Planting was done per genotype in rows of 3 m long depending on families, without replication and compared to the check variety SP70/1006. That check was replicated every five rows to ease comparison with the clones. Phytosanitary observations regarding the three endemic diseases made at the age of five months were subjected to a series of multivariate analyses.

Results: The study showed that most relevant diseases determining the diversity of susceptible sugarcane genotypes were, in descending order, pokkah boeng, smut and leaf scald. Increase in clone infestations on first ratoon cane compared with plant cane was observed regarding the three endemic diseases but more importantly for smut by 51%. The dendrogram deduced from cluster analysis showed that infected genotypes were split into six groups with same families belonging often to different clusters so that no family investigated specifically susceptible or resistant to any disease was determined. In other words, each family investigated was composed of disease-free as well as susceptible genotypes in proportions varying from one family to another.

Conclusions: All families investigated were relevant to maintain the diversity required for the breeding process underway. Examples of recommended families were the following: disease-free (F02, F03, F04, F05, F06); resistant (F01, F06, F07, F08, F09); moderately resistant (F10, F11, F12, F13, F14).

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Foliar Application of Liquid Nutrient Solution on Morpho-physiology, Quality and Yield Performance of Chilli (Capsicum frutescens) Germplasm

Md. Shah Newaz Chowdhury, Kamal Uddin Ahamed, Tania Sultana, Rabiul Islam

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42318

Aims: An experiment was conducted to study the influence of commercially available liquid fertilizers on local chilli germplasm.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in the crop field of the Department of Agricultural Botany, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka-1207, during the period from October 2015 to July 2016.

Methodology: The experiment consist of three levels of locally available common liquid fertilizers (F0 = Control, F1 = Calsol, F2 = Wuxal) which is a blend of more than one macro and micronutrients. F1 (Calsol) and F2 (Wuxal) were applied @ 21 ml per 7 litre water for 168 m2 of land at every 15 days interval. Foliar application was started from 30 days after setting up the experiment and continued up to 120 days.

Results: Maximum plant height (59.5 cm) and branches (33.0) plant-1, leaf number (78.4) plant-1 Chlorophyll content (57.1%), flowers plant-1 (68.7), vitamin C content in green chilli fruits (75.28 mg/100 g fruit) and dry chilli (39.47 mg/100 g fruit), protein content (3.9%) were obtained from (Calsol) F1 and minimum from (control) F0 (57.0 cm), (23.8) and (67.2) plant-1, (49.5%), (47.8), (58.80 mg/100 g), (29.77 mg/100 g) and (2.9%). Application of waxul gave the maximum leaf area plant-1 (95.9 cm2) at 85 days after transplanting (DAT) which was identical with calsol (92.2 cm2) and the control gave the minimum (78.0 cm2). Liquid fertilizers application in leaves highest fresh weight of 50 fruit and dry weight of fruit (81.3 g and 15.7 g), single fruit weight (2.6 g), length (76.2 mm) and diameter (9.9 mm), fruit pant-1 (214.8), 1000 seed weight (3.5 g), yield pant-1 (466.7 g) and fresh yield (17.6 t ha-1) were achieved from treatment F1 (calsol) as minimum amount of 50 fresh fruit and dry fruit weight (64.9 g and 11.2 g), single fruit weight (1.9 g), length (60.8 mm), diameter (7.6 mm), number of fruit pant-1 (139.1), 1000 seed weight (2.9 g), yield pant-1 (229.4 g) and fresh yield (12.8 t ha-1)  were found from F0.

Conclusion: In view of overall performances, this study suggests that Calsol (F1) as a potential source of plant liquid fertilizer for improving morphophysiology, yield and quality of local varietie of chilli.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Farm Productivity in Integrated Tree Cropping Systems of Southwestern Nigeria

B. J. Amujoyegbe, A. S. Bamire, A. D. Kehinde, A. Onwuemele, I. Latiffou

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/31321

After 1971 seasons, Cocoa and other tree crops production have declined substantially in recent times owing to several agricultural complex constraints which have affected the production of the farmers and the sustainability of agricultural production. Productivity is the main determinant of sustainable agricultural production. Thus, this study investigates the farm productivity in integrated tree cropping system in Southwestern Nigeria. A multistage sampling procedure was used to elicit information from 250 farmers. Data were analysed with the use of descriptive statistics, total factor productivity and multiple regression model. Descriptive statistics revealed that the farmers have organized social groups with average age of 50.18(± 13.50) years in Lagbedu, 51.52(± 11.72) years in Iwara, 52.58(± 13.75) years in Osunwoyin, and 55.12(± 15.56) years in Akindele. Farmers’ experience in farming was 26.48(± 13.4) years in Lagbedu, 29.54(± 15.79) years in Akindele, 29.9(± 14.41) years in Iwara, and 30.3(± 16.15) years in Osunwoyin. An average household size was 9.04(± 4.38) persons in Osunwoyin, 9.26(± 6.33) in Lagbedu, 10.12(± 5.21) persons in Iwara, and 10.34(± 5.97) persons in Akindele. Majority of the household cultivate cocoa in the study area. Majority of the respondents identified inadequate funds, land issues, non-availability of agro-inputs, pests and diseases infestation as major constraint to production. The average productivity level was 0.61 kg/₦ in the study area. The determinants of farm productivity in the study area were farm size (p<0.1), improved varieties (p<0.01), hired labour (p<0.01), fertilizers (p<0.01) and extension visit (p<0.05). In accordance with the findings of the study, intensive teaching programmes on the use and advantage of improved seed varieties and fertilizer by virile extension services should be encouraged as well as providing input as form of credit.