Open Access Original Research Article

Treated Domestic Effluents: An Option for Cultivation of Ornamental Sunflower in a Hydroponic System

Rogério Novaes de Souza, Vital Pedro da Silva Paz, Karoline Santos Gonçalves, Tales Miler Soares, André Dias Azevedo Neto, Hans Raj Gheyi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42785

Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate the use of treated domestic effluent as complementary nutritional source for the production of ornamental sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. ‘Anão de Jardim’) in a DFT hydroponic system with pyramid-type structure.

Study Design: Was used completely randomized experimental design with four treatments and six replicates, totaling 24 experimental plots, each one comprising of 7 plants.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted between March to May 2017, in a greenhouse, located in the experimental area of the Agricultural Engineering Graduate Program of the Federal University of Recôncavo of Bahia, located in the municipality of Cruz das Almas-BA, Brazil.

Methodology: Ornamental sunflower plants were grown in nutrient solution with different concentrations of nutrients prepared in treated domestic effluent (TDE) or public-supply water as described: T1 – Furlani’s nutrient solution at 100% concentration prepared with public-supply water (control), T2, T3 and T4 – Furlani’s nutrient solutions at 100, 75 and 50% of nutrient concentration prepared with TDE, respectively. Were evaluated plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, leaf and stem dry mass, the absolute and relative growth rates of height, stem diameter and dry shoot mass (leaves plus stem), internal and external diameter of the capitulum, dry mass of the capitulum, contents of the N, P, K, Ca and Mg in the leaf and stem, water consumption and water use efficiency of plant.

Results: Nutrient solution with concentration reduced by 50% and prepared with TDE (T4) led to satisfactory growth until the first 20 days and, after this period, although growth and production were inferior to those obtained in the other treatments (T1, T2 and T3), but the variables evaluated in the plants of all treatments met the requirements for commercialization. The contents of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in leaf and stem of sunflower plants at harvest did not show significant differences under different treatments.

Conclusion: The obtained results allow to infer on the viability of using TDE to prepare the nutrient solution and as a complementary source of nutrients up to the extent of 50% for the cultivation of ornamental sunflower, cv. ‘Anão de Jardim’ in a hydroponic system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Lines of Tomato Resistant to Bacterial Wilt

Adônis Queiroz Mendes, Dimas Menezes, Islan Diego Espindula de Carvalho, Adriano Márcio Freire Silva, Aldenir de Oliveira Alves, Ezildo Francisco Felinto Filho, Lilian Bonfim de Lima, Gérsia Gonçalves de Melo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42549

The objective of this study was identifying lines of tomato plants resistant to the bacterial wilt. The work was accomplished was developed in the Laboratory of Bacteriology and in the greenhouse at Department of Agronomy of Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, during the months of August and September 2016. The experiment design was completely randomized in the factorial 30x3 with three repetitions. The treatments consisted of 30 genotypes submitted to three Ralstonia solanacearum isolates. The components were consistent after inoculation, in which the incidence of the disease was quantified. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and the averages were grouped by the Scott-Knott test at 5% probability, they were still obtained phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations and dendrogram of dissimilarity. Considering the bacterial wilt index, eight lines were classified as resistant. It was possible to observe high phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlation coefficients between resistance components, demonstrating that the resistance and susceptibility characteristics are genetic and influenced by environmental conditions.  It was observed through dissimilarity the formation of four groups and four subgroups, in which the “I” group was composed of four witnesses of resistance, which was resistant and moderately resistant strains. It was possible to observe that the results indicate that eight lines can be used in crosses to obtain hybrids resistant to bacterial wilt. The latency period can use as a reference in the selection of materials with resistance to Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum. The lineages that stood out for resistance to bacterial wilt were: L04, L42, L49, L53, L82, L120, L125 and L128.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimum Substitution of Commercial Substrate with Moinha as an Alternative Biodegradable Agricultural Waste Substrate in the Production of Beet Seedlings

Paola Alfonsa Vieira Lo Monaco, Dandara Lyone Silva de Oliveira, Ismail Ramalho Haddade, Marcelo Rodrigo Krause, Karoline Matiello Almeida, Lorena Aparecida Merlo Meneghelli, Gustavo Haddade Vieira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42718

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of increasing concentrations of residues from the drying of coffee beans (moinha) in substrates composed of varied proportions (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 100%) of commercial substrates (CS), fixed proportions (20%) of coconut fiber (CF) and carbonized rice husk (CRH) on beet seedling quality production. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized block design, with seven treatments including control and ten replicates. The treatments were T1: 100% CS (control); T2: 10% moinha (MO) + 20% CRH + 20% CF + 50% CS; T3: 20% MO + 20% CRH + 20% CF + 40% CS; T4: 30% MO + 20% CRH + 20% CF + 30% CS; T5: 40% MO + 20% CRH + 20% CF + 20% CS; T6: 50% MO + 20% CRH + 20% CF + 10% CS; and T7: 60% MO + 20% CRH + 20% CF + 0% CS (all percentages were by volume). The variables evaluated were electrical conductivity of the substrates, seedling height, number of leaves, stem diameter, and dry matter of roots and above-ground parts. Substrate treatments containing 30 and 40% of MO presented the highest values for the growth variables analyzed. However, proportions of MO at up to 50% can be incorporated into the soil nutrient substrate containing 20% of CRH, 20% CF and 10% CS, replacing the exclusive use of the CS, without losing any quality in the beet seedlings produced.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimate of General and Specific Combination Ability in Tomato for Production of Hybrids Resistant to Bacterial Wilt

Adônis Queiroz Mendes, Dimas Menezes, Islan Diego Espindula de Carvalho, Adriano Márcio Freire Silva, Aldenir de Oliveira Alves, Ezildo Francisco Felinto Filho, Lilian Bonfim de Lima, Gérsia Gonçalves de Melo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42322

To estimate the combining ability, two groups of tomato genotypes for the production of resistant hybrids to bacterial wilt were evaluated. The experiments were carried out in phyto bacteriology laboratory and in greenhouse facility of the department of agronomy at Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, between June and September 2016. A parental group with wilt resistant cultivars Yoshimatsu and Hawaii 7996 as testers and the second group consisted of 10 lines and the two susceptible cultivars IPA-6 and Santa Clara. The diallel analysis was according to the method of Geraldi and Miranda Filho, type G2, employed in estimating the general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability and other genetic parameters. The crosses that showed the highest performance for resistance were the hybrids of Yoshimatsu with the line L04 and Hawaii 7996 with the L125, because they were observed with a positive SCA for the period of latency (LP-50) and negative for the other characters studied. It was observed that additive effects were involved for bacterial wilt index (BWI), incidence (INC) and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) and non-additive effects were involved for all the four resistance components (BWI, INC, LP-50 and AUDPC) studied. The genetic parameters of BWI and LP-50 for the isolate CRM 74 and AUDPC for the isolates CRM 74 and CRM 77 had coefficients of genotype variation above the coefficient of environmental variation, with a CVg/CVe above 1.0 and a high genetic variance. The highest heritability was in AUDPC for both isolates with 88.24% and 75.90% respectively. The L125 line presented greater GCA to main resistance components for the main resistance components for CRM 74 and CRM77 isolated. The hybrid Yoshimatsu x L04 combination stood out with a higher SCA.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Effect of Purple Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Aqueous Extract on Physiological Quality of Lettuce Seedlings Subject to Salt Stress

Cristiane Deuner, Carolina Terra Borges, César Iván Suárez Castellanos, Sidnei Deuner, Francisco Amaral Villela, Géri Eduardo Meneghello

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42486

The salinity is an environmental stress that can affect germination of seeds. The lettuce has carotenoids, vitamin C, high level of phenolic compounds and high antioxidant activity, which can help reduce the stress caused by salt. The purple varieties still have a lots of anthocyanins, which gives them greater antioxidant power. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effect of purple lettuce leaf extract on the physiological quality during seed germination and early growth of lettuce seedlings subjected to salinity. Therefore, two experiments were conducted, one in the laboratory and the other in the greenhouse. In both experiments, lettuce seeds, cv. Regina, were subjected to irrigation with purple lettuce extracts, variety Batavia cacimba, and salt solutions during the early stages of seedling development, evaluating parameters related to germination and biomass production. The use of aqueous extract of purple lettuce promotes the germination, the first counting of germination, the shoot length and the dry mass of seedlings under laboratory conditions. The aqueous extract of purple lettuce, though not inhibit the effect of salt, it assists the initial development of lettuce seedlings. The salt affects the development of lettuce seedlings in the laboratory and in the greenhouse.