Open Access Short communication

Yield, Quality and Soil Fertility as Influenced by Rabi Castor (Ricinus communis L.) Based Intercropping System

B. K. Yadav, G. N. Patel, S. K. Choudhary

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42766

An experiment was conducted at C. P. College of Agriculture, Sardarkrushinagar on loamy sand soil using a randomised block design with three replications during 2013-14. Results revealed that sole castor, castor + lucerne and castor + fenugreek (1:2) found equally effective with respect to seed yield of castor. Among the intercrops viz-., lucerne, chicory, fenugreek and carrot, the maximum green forage yield of lucerne/chicory, seed yield of fenugreek and root yield of carrot were obtained when they were sown as sole crop. A similar trend was also observed in stalk / dry fodder/straw / green fodder yield of castor and intercrops. Rabi castor intercropped with lucerne, carrot, fenugreek and chicory at 1:2 row ratio produced significantly higher castor equivalent yield, 3297, 3057, 2731 and 3237 kg ha-l respectively over sole castor and other intercrops as sole. While intercropping of castor + fenugreek and castor + lucerne at 1:2 row ratio recorded significantly higher LER (Land equivalent ratio) value than sole crops and other intercropping systems. Oil content in castor/crude protein and crude fibre content in lucerne and chicory/total soluble salts in carrot were found higher in their sole crop treatments as compared to intercrop. Oil yield was found significantly higher in sole castor than other treatments. Nutrient status of soil viz.,% organic carbon, available N, P, K and S after harvest of crops did not differ significantly due to different treatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrient Dynamics in Bottom Sediment of a Reservoir in the Semi-Arid Region

Aldênia Mendes Mascena de Almeida, Fernando Bezerra Lopes, Eunice Maia de Andrade, Cicero Lima de Almeida, Leilson Carvalho de Oliveira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42944

Aims: This research was developed to quantify the dynamics of the stocks of organic carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen in sediments, as well as the retention or release of nutrients in the water column of a reservoir in the tropical semi-arid region.

Place and Duration of Study: To achieve these goals, trenches were opened in the two tributaries (the Canindé and Capitão Mor Rivers) of the Pereira de Miranda reservoir, Pentecoste, in the State of Ceará (CE), Brazil. The trenches were located 500 m upstream from the waterbody. Samples were collected from each sediment deposition profile. After collection, the total organic carbon, labile carbon, granulometry, and total and assimilable phosphorus were analysed.

Results: The Canindé and Capitão Mor display different dynamics for the contribution of carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen, and it is evident that the Canindé River contributes more nutrient to the sediments, a fact that is mainly related to the greater deposition of fine sediment found in the Canindé.

Conclusion: Sediment granulometry has a strong influence on the retention or release of TOC, P and N, and reservoirs with a predominance of fine sediments display greater fixation of these elements and become a nutrient sink within the ecosystem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Defense in Sunflower against Drought

Marília Mércia Lima Carvalho Carneiro, Márcio Espinosa de Farias, Camila Ferreira de Pinho, Sheila Bigolin Teixeira, Gabriele Espinel Ávila, Cristiane Deuner, Junior Borella, Sidnei Deuner

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42488

The sunflower has a fundamental role in the global economy, being one of the most important crops for oil production. The plants have a short growing season and it adapts well to different soil conditions and unfavorable weather. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of drought on leaf water potential, the content of photosynthetic pigments and antioxidant responses in two cultivars of sunflower. Seeds of the M735 cv. and MG2 cv. were sown in pots and four plants were maintained per pot that was arranged randomly. Plants were grown in a greenhouse, and two months after sowing, subjected to water stress: Irrigated and not irrigated. Evaluations were performed after 1, 5 and 12 days of induction the stress treatment. Significant reduction in leaf water potential at 5 and 12 days in M735 cv. and 12 days for MG2 cv., were observed. The pigment content did not differ between treatments. There was no change in antioxidant enzyme activity for the M735 cv., though the levels of H2O2 increased in non-irrigated plants after 12 days. The SOD and CAT activities increased in the MG2 cv. as a function of water deficit at five and 12 days of water stress. In MG2 cv. was also observed increased levels of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation after 12 days of drought. These results suggest that the major effect of water stress can vary with sunflower cultivars.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth, Production and Essential Oil Content of Basil Genotypes in Hydroponic Conditions under Salt Stress

Helio Gondim Filho, Petterson Costa Conceição Silva, Mairton Gomes da Silva, Monikuelly Mourato Pereira, Tales Miler Soares, André Dias de Azevedo Neto, Rafael Souza Vasconcelos, Hans Raj Gheyi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/43023

Aims: Salinity is one of the abiotic factors that most limit the yield of crops. However, the responses may vary according to the genotypic characteristics of each species. This study aimed to evaluate the growth, production and essential oil content of three basil genotypes subjected to salinity in deep flow technique hydroponic system.

Study Design: The experimental design was in randomized blocks, in split plots, with three replicates.

Methodology: The main plots were used to evaluate six levels of electrical conductivity of the solution (ECsol 2.45; 4.32; 6.38; 8.36; 10.37 and 12.27 dS m-1), obtained by the addition of NaCl in the nutrient solution. In the subplots, three basil genotypes (‘Alfavaca Basilicão’, ‘Grecco a Palla’ and ‘Toscano Folha de Alface’) were studied.

Results: Plant height was less sensitive than stem diameter to salinity. Shoot dry matter decreased by 6.87, 6.84 and 6.47%, respectively, in the genotypes ‘Alfavaca Basilicão’, ‘Toscano Folha de Alface’ and ‘Grecco a Palla’ per unit increase in salinity (dS m-1). The essential oil contents increased by 20.3 and 9.7% per unit increase in salinity (dS m-1) for ‘Grecco a Palla’ and ‘Toscano Folha de Alface’, respectively.

Conclusions: The genotype ‘Alfavaca Basilicão’ was the most recommended for shoot dry matter production up to salinity level of 10.37 dS m-1. At the highest salinity level tested (12.27 dS m-1), there was no difference in shoot dry matter production and absolute growth rate among the genotypes evaluated. The genotype ‘Grecco a Palla’ showed higher essential oil content as salinity increased.

Open Access Original Research Article

Moisture Behavior to the Spatial Variability of Physical Attributes in Different Soil Management

Claudinei Martins Guimarães, Felipe Bernardes Silva, Warlles Domingos Xavier, Carlos Alexandre Gomes Costa, Raimundo Rodrigues Gomes Filho, Igor Leonardo Nascimento Santos

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42726

The technique of temporal stability is used by several researchers to adequately represent the water content in the soil with reduced sampling effort from the identification of points on the field that reflects the average behavior of soil moisture. Therefore, the aim of this work was to analyze the moisture behavior to the spatial variation of density and particle size in a Hapludox under three different soil tillage systems (No-Till, Crop-Livestock Integration and Conventional Planting) in the municipality of Jataí, Southwest of Goias, Brazil. It was collected nine sampling points information for each handling system in three depth ranges (0 - 0.12 m, 0.12 to 0.24 m, 0.24 to 0.36 m). For this, it was used a portable type sensor TDR HydroSence model, rods with length 0.12 m. The determination and location of points for data collection were done by georeferencing, using a GPS system ("Global Positioning System"), GARMIN, MAP785 model. Bulk density and soil particle size (clay) were determinated according to the recommendation by EMBRAPA. The experimental area was composed of three sub-areas of approximately 1 ha each, cultivated with soybean (Glycine max) in the season 2013/2014 (first crop) with different soil management systems. Statistical analyzes were performed using analysis of variance and Pearson correction. The spatial variation was represented using the SURFER software. The results of variance analysis indicate statistical differences between values ​​of bulk density and soil particle size between depths, between the different management and spatial distribution within each management. It was perceived spatial relationship between moisture and attributes studied for some depths and types of management, but there was little influence of physical attributes in the behavior of moisture to the soil and conditions studied.