Open Access Original Research Article

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Characterization in the Pernambuco State Forest Middle Zone

Gérsia Gonçalves de Melo, Djayran Sobral Costa, Islan Diego Espíndula de Carvalho, Yrlânia de Lira Guerra, Demerson Arruda Sanglard, Péricles de Albuquerque Melo Filho

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42610

This work aims to identify promising safflower genotypes for cultivation in Pernambuco state forest middle zone. The methodology employed evaluated the performance of six genotypes of the specie, growing at an experimental area of Agronomy Department of Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (UFRPE), by a randomized blocks design, between March and May 2017. The performance of six genotypes of the safflower, growing at an experimental area was evaluated. Germination percentage (%) and the emergency speed index were evaluated these at 60 and 80 days after sowing, following variables were observed: plant height (cm), stem diameter (cm), denting of leaf intensity, spinal margin of leaf intensity, number of branches per plant and per stand. Analysis of variance was performed with F test followed by Tukey post-hoc test (p < 0.05), using GENES program. All presented adequate height for mechanized harvesting and the genotypes ICA 211, ICA 338 and ICA 400 exhibited a weak or moderate intensity of spinescent margin. Cultivation in winter was not favorable. Safflower cultivation during the winter period in the Central Forest Zone of Pernambuco is contraindicated. The genotypes tested can be used in breeding programs to obtain adaptation to high rainfall.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Insecticide Toxicity in Adults of the Fruit Flies Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) and Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Tephritidae)

Adalton Raga, Leonardo Tambones Galdino, Sara Braga e Silva, Fernando Berton Baldo, Mário Eidi Sato

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/43066

Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of economic and quarantine significance are responsible for both quantitative and qualitative losses in horticulture. Most producers in Brazil use insecticides as a cover spray for the control of fruit flies. Here new insecticide molecules were evaluated under laboratory conditions as potential replacements for organophosphates to provide protection and prevent damage to horticultural crops. Five pairs of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) and Anastrepha grandis (Wied.) were placed into Petri dishes and exposed to eight insecticides using a Potter spray tower. The number of insect deaths was monitored until 21 hours after spraying. In general, both Anastrepha species exhibited similar susceptibility to the insecticides. Different fruit fly mortalities were observed among the insecticide treatments beginning 30 minutes after exposure. Interactions were verified between the compounds and fruit fly species and between evaluation periods and treatments. Acetamiprid, deltamethrin, flypyradifurone (1.60 ppm), imidacloprid, phosmet, thiamethoxam and zeta-cypermethrin caused similar mortalities 21 hours after treatment for both fruits fly species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution of Weekly Rainfall and Probability Analysis for Crop Planning in Bastar Region of Chhattisgarh

Adikant Pradhan, S. K. Nag, A. Sao, S. C. Mukherjee

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42241

Daily rainfall data of 10 years (2004-2013) of Bastar were used for weekly analysis to study the rainfall distribution and the probability of occurrence. The CV was less than 20 per cent from 10th to 22nd standard week, indicated that the rainfall is consistent during this period. The above rainfall analysis showed that the crops could be recommended under rainfed condition between 22nd to 35th standard weeks as the rainfall is more consistent during this period as compared to 36th to 52nd and 10th to 21st standard weeks for summer ploughing, which fall under Southwest monsoon. The moisture requirement of crops could be met from 26th to 38th standard week as these weeks has the probability of 50 per cent for getting 20 mm of weekly rainfall. The analysis revealed that the drought-resistant finger millet, kodo millet, niger, horsegram and drought escaping little millet can be grown. Maize may be grown with supplemental irrigation of one or two to get the best yield out of available soil moisture as rainfed farming. Drought resistant short duration pulses and oilseeds can be grown within the growing period from 39th to 46th standard weeks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variability and Spatial Correlation between Phenotypic Attributes and Productivity of Papaya

Walas Permanhane Sturião, Ivoney Gontijo, Abel Souza da Fonseca, Julião Soares de Souza Lima

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/41819

Aims: The characterisation of the spatial variability of plants attributes associated with productivity is important for the refinement of agricultural management practices and the evaluation of the effects of agriculture on environmental quality. The objective of this research was to study the correlations of phenotypic variables, the productivity of papaya and spatial variability using a geostatistical technique.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was carried out in a commercial crop of papaya (Carica papaya L.) located in the northern state of Espírito Santo, Brazil in a typical cohesive Yellow Ultisol, between June 2010 and June 2011.

Methodology: The following variables were measured in each sampled plant: height of the plants (HPL); diameter of the stem at 0.20 m from the ground (SDI); lower insertion height of the first flowers (IHF); number of leaves totally open (NTL); number of flower buds (NFB); crown diameter (CRD); the height of the first fruit harvest (HFR); the total number of fruits harvested; the mass of the harvested fruit; the average number of fruits produced per plant (NFR); the average fruit mass produced per plant (kg plant-1) (MFP); the average mass of each harvested fruit, in kg (MFR); and the average productivity per ha, in Mg ha-1 (PRD). 

Study Design: Data were submitted to the classical exploratory statistical analysis. In order to evaluate the interrelation between the variables under study, the Pearson (P = .05) correlation analysis was performed. The analysis and modeling of the spatial structure were evaluated using the geostatistical technique.

Results and Conclusion: There was a positive correlation between the initial productivity of papaya with the phenotypic variables: The greatest stem diameter, the lowest insertion height of the first flowers and fruits, the greatest foliar coverage and the highest number of fruit mass produced per plant. The maps of spatial distribution of phenotypic variable and the productivity of papaya permitted a visual interpretation of its behaviour in the area and corresponded to the existing correlation between the variables indicating a suitable condition for the delineation of regions with homogeneous characteristics of plants within the crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

First and Second Generation of Ethanol Production for Five Sweet Sorghum Cultivars during Soft Dough Grain

Emmanuel Damilano Dutra, Bárbara Ribeiro Alves Alencar, Janis Joplim Galdino, Jose Nildo Tabosa, Rômulo Simões Cezar Menezes, Renisson Neponuceno de Araújo Filho, Dário Costa Primo, Victor Casimiro Piscoya, Jadson Emanuel Lopes Antunes

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42742

This study we aimed to identify how the harvest period of the stems from 5 sweet sorghum cultivars influences the production of sugar and ethanol under rainfed conditions in the municipality of Itambé, state of Pernambuco. Subsequently we evaluated the ethanol production from juice and bagasse of the different cultivars. The field experiment was evaluated in a factorial arrangement with two factors (5 cultivars and 3 harvest periods) and fours replications. The fermentation experiments, pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis were delineated in a completely randomized design in quadruplicate. Data obtained for all variables evaluated were submitted to an Analysis of Variance and the means compared by the Tukey test at 5% of probability. Results showed that the harvest period influenced the total soluble solids, and the harvest period of soft dough was chosen for assessments of ethanol production of first and second generation. Ethanol production from juice differed among cultivars with the best performance by cultivar SF 15. Significant differences were observed for the chemical composition of bagasses between cultivars, but there where no difference in efficiencies of enzymatic hydrolysis. The average conversion of cellulose in glucose was 64.87%. The cultivars of sweet sorghum biomass developed and adapted for the Northeastern region of Brazil showed potential for ethanol production from the juice and bagasse.