Field experiments were conducted at Horticulture Section of Kabba College of Agriculture to investigate the effects of different rates of cow dung manure on the growth and yield of three varieties of jute mallow. The experiment was a factorial, consisted of four levels of cow dung, which were 0 t/ha, 2.5 t/ha, 5 t/ha and 10 t/ha and three varieties of jute mallow which were Onyan, Angbadu and Oniyaya. The experiments were laid out in a randomized complete block design and replicated three times. Fifteen plants from each plot were randomly selected and used for the assessment of growth characters and fruit characters. Data collected were subjected to the statistical analysis of variance procedure while, the mean treatments were separated using least significant difference. The result shows that all the cow dung amended plots were significantly better than the control plots in terms of growth characters irrespective of the rate of its application. Among the cow dung rates, cow dung applied at 10 t/ha had the highest plant height, number of leaves, fresh and dry weight, though this was not significantly different from cow dung applied at 2.5 t/ha and 5 t/ha. Plots without cow dung (control) produced the least plant height (39.7 cm), number of leaves, fresh and dry weight. Onyan produced highest growth characters; this was closely followed by Oniyaya while Agbadu recorded the least value of growth characters. Interaction of cow dung rate and variety on plant height was not significant throughout the period of experiment. The result also shows that numbers of pod produced were higher in plots with 10 t/ha, (17) though, plots with 5t/ha produced the greatest number of seed (198) and seed weight per plot (3.92 kg). However, all these were significantly better than the control plots. Among the cultivars considered in this experiment, Onyan had better growth and yield character which was significantly better than either Agbadu or Oniyaya varieties. The result indicated that leaf production, fresh weight and seed yield were highest in variety Onyan when cow dung was applied at 5 t/ha. It is therefore recommended to farmers growing jute mallow in the study area.
Aims: It was aimed to investigate the relationship between two climatic parameters, temperature and relative humidity, and the flower-cutting interval of mangoes tree cv. Kent
Study Design: The experimental design used was the completely randomized design with triplicate.
Place and Duration of Study: The present research was developed in the Laboratoire de Biologie et Amélioration des Productions Végétales, UFR Sciences de la Nature, Université Nangui Abrogoua, Côte d’Ivoire and in the Centre National de recherche Agronomique, Station de recherche de Lataha (Lavononkaha), Korhogo, Côte d’Ivoire, between December 2015 to January 2018.
Methodology: One hundred (100) mango trees were chosen to constitute four blocks of mango trees cv Kent. Every three days, the phenological events were notified. Regular observations were performed to determine the time between the phenological events of the inflorescence. Thus, the inflorescence appearance and the first flower opening, the time between the first flower opening and the first fructification, in relation with temperature and relative humidity were determined.
Results: It was not observed a negative correlation between temperature, time of inflorescence appearance and the first flower opening. Moreover, the relative humidity revealed a positive correlation with this time. In addition, the time elapsing between the first flower opening and the first fruiting is negatively correlated with temperature but positively with relative humidity.
Conclusion: Negative correlation between the time elapsing from the inflorescence appearance and the first flower opening as well as the temperature. Furthermore, a positive correlation between was revealed between the inflorescence appearance and the first flower opening as well as the relative humidity. Similarly, for the elapses delay between the first flower opening and the temperature. In addition, correlation observed between fruiting time and relative humidity was positive.
The temperature is one of the climatic factors of greater importance in the physiological processes of the plants, being directly related to its growth and development, which need a thermal accumulation to complete its phenological cycles. The objective of this work was to evaluate the contribution of temperature to cacao tree seedlings (genotype TSH1188) development, thus determining its lower basal (Tb) and upper (TB) temperature as well as the thermal sum in degree-day (DD) required for its production with quality. The study was carried out in the Horticulture sector of the Federal Institute of Espirito Santo - Campus Itapina, Colatina/ES, conducted under a completely randomized design in three planting seasons with different climatic conditions. For the estimation of Tb, four different estimation methods were used: standard deviation in degree-day (SDdd), the standard deviation in days (SDd), the coefficient of variation in degree-day (CVdd) and relative development (RD). The upper basal temperature (TB) was estimated similarly to Tb, with the exception of the RD method. The basal temperatures (Tb and TB) were estimated by means of the average values obtained in the methods used and the thermal sum, obtained in each planting season, using the mean Tb value, from the emergence of the seedlings, by the sum of the degree-days. The estimated values of lower and upper basal temperature were respectively 10°C and 37°C and the mean thermal sum for a quality cacao tree seedling production is 1018°C. In order to obtain a production of quality cacao tree seedlings in different climatic conditions, it is possible to evaluate the development of the variables height, stem diameter and number of leaves of the cacao tree seedlings as a function of accumulated degrees. The time required for the production of cacao tree seedlings varies according to the season of the year. Cacao tree seedlings conducted in periods with higher temperatures took less time to form with quality.
Aims: To investigate the status of microelements in the selected expanding rice production project irrigation schemes in Unguja and Pemba Islands, Zanzibar
Study Design: Standard grid soil survey
Place and Duration of Study: Unguja and Pemba Isles Zanzibar during October and December, 2017.
Methodology: Detailed soil survey at a scale of 1:10,000 was conducted using pedogeomorphic approach from which composite soil samples were collected at a depth of 0 – 30 cm. Each mapping unit had a representative profile around which soil samples were collected at a radius of 20 – 30 m for microelements investigation.
Results: Results showed that the status of micronutrients (Fe, Zn and Mn) in the selected irrigation schemes varied (P ≤ 0.05) with schemes and their respective mapping units, although in some cases, variations were not significant (P ≤ 0.05). In Unguja and Pemba irrigation schemes, there were generally moderate or optimum DTPA - extractable Fe, low DTPA - extractable Zn and high DTPA - extractable Mn levels. The data suggest that except for DTPA - extractable Zn which was low in all irrigation schemes, Fe and Mn were not limited to crop growth and development. However, in Kwalempona (KWA-MP1: Hi1) and Machigini (MA-MP1: Hi1) irrigation schemes, Fe levels were rated as high or above critical limits. Additionally, the overall soil reaction in these irrigation schemes ranged from neutral (N) to very strongly acidic (VSA).
Conclusion: In all, these results suggest that to improve crop production in the selected irrigation schemes, low Zn availability should be addressed by including it into fertilizer programs as well as proper soil pH management by reducing soil acidity through liming in the higher elevations for irrigation development.
Aims: Two field trials were conducted to investigate the effect of inter-row spacing on the growth and yield of cowpea.
Study Design: The first trial was set up as a randomized complete block design with three replications. The second trial was set up as a split-plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design and the treatments were replicated three times.
Place and Duration of Study: The trials were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Buea in 2014 and 2016-2017.
Methodology: In the first trial, the variety VYA was grown at three inter-row spacings (45, 75 and 90 cm). The second trial comprised three inter-row spacings (45, 60 and 75 cm) and four varieties (RIL 69, RIL 79, RIL 265 and VYA). In both trials, the intra-row spacing was 25 cm.
Results: Inter-row spacing significantly influenced (P<0.05) the performance of cowpea. In 2014, cowpea on rows spaced 75 and 90 cm apart produced more leaves and fodder yield than that spaced 45 cm apart. In both trials, cowpea on rows spaced 60, 75 and 90 cm apart produced taller plants with larger stems than that on rows spaced 45 cm apart. However, grain yield increased with a decrease in inter-row spacing for all varieties; the highest yield (6.04 tons-1) was recorded for RIL 69 on rows spaced 45 cm apart. Among the varieties, RIL 69 had the highest fodder yield (4.7 tons-1).
Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that cowpea should be sown in rows spaced 45 cm apart, for optimum grain yield production in Buea.