Open Access Short Research Article

Computer Vision as a Complementary Method to Vigour Analysis in Maize Seeds

André Dantas de Medeiros, Márcio Dias Pereira, Tássia Fernanda Santos Neri Soares, Bruno Gomes Noronha, Daniel Teixeira Pinheiro

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/43464

Rapid and accurate evaluation of seed lot physiological potential is strongly desirable for the success of quality control programs conducted by seed industry. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of computer vision through a free software of processing seedling digital images, in order to characterise maize seeds physiological potential and make comparisons among routine vigour tests, recommended for this species. So that, germination test, first germination count, seedling emergence, cold test, germination speed index and electrical conductivity test were used for featuring the physiological potential of maize seed lots. Then, these tests' results were compared with data collected, using an image analysis technique, through SAPL® software. Seedlings growth were evaluated by photographs on the seventh day and obtained the values of the primary root, coleoptile, and whole seedlings length, as well as growth, uniformity, vigour and corrected vigour indices. The computerised images analysis of seedlings through SAPL® is a consistent and promising alternative for evaluating the physiological potential of maize seeds. Its efficiency was proved in this study, being equivalent to what verified in routine tests for vigour determination.

Open Access Short Research Article

Heavy Metal Levels in Beans (Vigna unguiculata) in Selected Markets in Ibadan, Nigeria

F. A. Adepoju, A. F. Adepoju, O. O. Fadina

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/35900

Aim: Beans play a significant role in human diet especially in developing nations like Nigeria which happens to be the largest producer and consumer of beans in the world. To ensure food safety, heavy metal levels need to be monitored on regular basis to control human exposure through dietary intake.

Methodology: 72 Samples of brown beans (Oloyin and Drum) were obtained from three different markets in Ibadan, Nigeria. The markets were Ayeye Market, Bodija Market and Oja-Oba Market. Powdered samples were digested with nitric acid. Extract from the digest were analyzed for Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) using Buck Scientific Atomic Absorption Spectrometer.

Results: Concentration of Cd and Pb ranged from 0.00 to 0.01 mg/kg and 0.00 to 1.52 mk/kg respectively. The results of this research indicated levels of Cadmium and Lead within safe limit, hence human health is not at danger.

Conclusion: Efforts need to be made in total elimination of heavy metal in the beans because human health is at risk due to the effects of their bioaccumulation in the body.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diversity and Structure of Adult and Regenerating Arbor Component in Forest ‘Submontana’, Paraíba-Brazil

José Nailson Barros Santos, Robson Luis Silva de Medeiros, Tales Emanuel Duarte Santos, Adamastor Pereira Barros, Ezequias Junior Borges Lopes de Oliveira, Fernando Antônio da Silva Fernande, Maria José Araújo Wanderley, Alex da Silva Barbosa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42854

The objective of this research was to study the diversity and similarity  profiles  of  vegetal  species  from adult  and  regenerating  arboreal  component  in  ‘submontana’ forest  area, evaluating the modulation of the effective numbers of vegetal species on the different strata. An area of 4400 m2 was sampled in a remaining rainforest (Open Ombrophylous Forest), in which woody species of adult stratum and regenerating were measured. All woody individuals were considered among the adult strata with CFG ≥ 10 cm in circumference (circumference of the trunk at 30 cm from the ground). Regenerating components were measured in the same plot (CFG < 10 cm), to justify richness and diversity comparisons in the same scale of the area. The numbers of effective Hill diversity (qD) to Shannon entropy, Simpson and species Richness was estimated by rarefaction  (P = .05). The effective plant species numbers (qD) were estimated at 71.00; 37.48 and 25.31 species in relation to adult stratum, and 69.0; 25.36 and 16.87 species for the regenerant. No significant differences were found for richness of species among the strata. On the other hand, when plant species abundances were intensified as more important in the diversity measures, it was proved that the tree component began to maintain greater diversity, by Shannon and Simpson’s entropy. The pattern of proportionality in species abundance changed systematically as the community directed its development to the adult stratum. The hypothesis on floristic similarity was confirmed, indicating reasonable perspectives on the regeneration power of these forests, front of the great scenario of moderate local disturbances.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histological Analyses Reveal Promising Features in Coffea arabica Cell Suspension Culture

Luana Ferreira Torres, Marlúcia Souza Pádua, Kalynka Gabriella do Livramento, Leandro Eugenio Cardamone Diniz, Luciano Vilela Paiva

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/43350

Biotechnological techniques have been extensively studied to provide practical results for coffee improvement. Among these techniques, the present study deals with the somatic embryogenesis for crop improvement.

Aims: To describe and correlate the morphology of Coffea arabica cell suspensions with their growth curve through electron microscopy and photonic analysis.

Methodology: During 28 days of the culture period, samples of cell culture were collected at four days interval and the growth curve of the cell suspensions was performed by calculating the growth and the growth rate of the same. Cell suspension samples were used to perform the histological and ultrastructural analyses.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiments were conducted at the Laboratório Central de Biologia Molecular (LCBM) and the Laboratório de Microscopia Eletrônica e Análise Ultraestrutural (LME) at the Federal University of Lavras, (Brazil), in the year 2017.

Results: In the study period (28 days of culture), the growth curve of the cell suspensions exhibited sigmoid standard with four distinct phases: lag, exponential, linear and deceleration, represented by the regression equation y = -0,084x2 + 3,9399x + 2.85, significant at 5% probability. Histological and ultrastructural analyses allowed visualization of embryogenic characteristics in all the samples and with greater frequency in the samples that corresponded to time zero up to 20 days of culture.

Conclusion: The importance of establishing the growth curve of cell suspensions is the identification of the phases in which the fundamental kinetic processes occur, allowing the correct manipulation of the same. Associated with this data, the identification of distinct types of cells allowed identification of the ideal cell suspension to obtain an efficient propagation system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Culturing Methods for the Yam Nematode Scutellonema bradys

Abdulmujib Yusuf, Abiodun O. Claudius-Cole

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/43086

The study evaluated eight culturing methods for Scutellonema bradys. The media evaluated for culturing the S. bradys were: in vitro yam plantlets (tissue culture), kenaf callus, yam disc inoculated the same day, yam disc inoculated five days after disc preparation, yam disc placed on water agar, whole yam tuber and yam setts planted in potted soil (control). Each method was fitted into a completely randomized design with five replicates and inoculated with fifty individuals of S. bradys except for the control. After eight weeks of incubation, S. bradys were extracted from the media and plant tissue collected from each method. Final population numbers were estimated and nematode reproductive factor (RF) was calculated. The highest RF value was recorded for the whole yam tuber method and tissue culture method with no significant differences (p = 0.05) between the two. S. bradys did not multiply in the yam disc methods evaluated. The findings from the study show that the whole yam tuber method was the best option for culturing S. bradys while the use of tissue culture plantlets may hold some promise.