Seed selection as a function of their position in the fruit and its biometric characteristics has been widely used in multiplying several plant species, since these factors may be related to their physiological quality. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the position that the seeds occupy in the fruits on the morphometry and the physiological quality of moringa seeds. The fruits were analyzed for their biometric characteristics and divided into three regions, called apical, medial and basal, proceeding to separate the seeds considering their position in the fruits. Three seeds were collected from each fruit region with 200 seeds each, and digital morphometry was evaluated using ImageJ® and physiological quality. Four replicates of 50 seeds obtained in each region of the fruit were used in a completely randomized design. Data were submitted to ANOVA and the means comparison of the variables was performed by the Tukey test at 5% probability. In the morphometry analysis, a statistical difference for the variables of weight, area, diameter, length, perimeter and circularity was observed. For the physiological quality, it was observed that the germination and vigor tests separated the seeds at two levels, except for the epicotyl/radicle length, which presented higher accuracy. Moringa fruit and seeds presented morphometric variation, where the seeds of the basal region were larger and heavier, while the seeds of the medial and basal regions presented greater germination and vigor than those of the apical part.
Previous reports showed that the abiotic stress related to the pre-transplant plug cell volume during nursery decreases both root and shoot growth at the transplant stage and limit final yield to leafy green vegetables. The cytokinin function has been linked to different abiotic stresses including plug cell volume during nursery, which explain that a single early benzyl amino purine (BAP) spray can override root restriction effects. Since transplanting has almost replaced direct seeding, the objective of this new report was to analyze spinach growth changes of different root restrictions degree by direct-seeded or the use of different plug cell volumes but including the use of the hormonal regulator BAP as an abiotic stress alleviator at different times. Our results showed that higher yield has been related to leaf area expansion (estimated through RLA, RLAE and individual leaf size), photo assimilate acquisition (estimated through RGR, NAR and SLA), and photo assimilate partition (estimate through root-shoot allometries). All traits can be modified by root restriction during nursery and a single BAP spray. On the other hand, a direct relationship between RLAE, RLA, RGR, NAR, glucose content and root dry weight was found. However, the precise quantitative response is related to BAP application time as well. In summary, plug cell volume can be considered as an abiotic stress, which decreases spinach yield. Shoot-biomass accumulation can be optimized through direct-seeded, increased plug cell volume or applied a single BAP spray in plug-grown plants. However, a precise BAP application time and spinach response relationship can be shown.
Fernando Antônio Lima Gomes, Railene Hérica Carlos Rocha Araújo, Jackson Silva Nóbrega, Reynaldo Teodoro de Fátima, Márcio Santos da Silva, Adriana Silva Santos, Albert Einstein Mathias de Medeiros Teodósio, Carlos Jardel Andrade Oliveira
Aims: The present study aimed to assess the alleviating effect of silicon in salinity on melon growth.
Study Design: The experimental design was in randomised blocks, corresponding to the with four salt levels and three doses of silicon.
Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in a protected environment at Center of Sciences and Agri-Food Technology of the Federal University of Campina Grande, Campus of Pombal, Paraiba, Brazil, between october and December 2017.
Methodology: The experiment was randomised blocks, in a 4x3 factorial scheme, with four salt levels (0.3, 1.3, 2.3 and 3.3 dS m-1) and three doses of silicon (Sí1) = 0; (Sí2) = 3.2; (Sí3) = 6.4 g.L-1 per plant, applied via soil with four repetitions of 12 plants. As vegetable material the 'Hales Best Jumbo' melon hybrid of the Cantaloupensis group was used.
Results: Salinity severely affected the leaf area, shoot dry weight and total weight and the Dickson quality index. On the other hand, silicon had a significant effect on leaf number, plant height, stem diameter, root length, number of flowers, and number of flower buds, root dry weight and extravasation of electrolytes.
Conclusion: The application of silicon alleviated the salinity effect favoring melon growth, especially when the dose of 3.2 g. L-1 was applied.
This study evaluated the genetic diversity among 70 accessions of Calotropis procera based on agronomic characters. Seeds of C. procera were collected in the Northeast region of Brazil. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in Campina Grande, Paraíba State, between January and September 2016. The plants were grown for 240 days after sowing in plastic pots filled with soil. Data regarding 23 characteristics were recorded and analysed statistically (ANOVA and cluster analyses. The ANOVA has detected differences between accessions for all the characteristics indicating that all 23 agronomic characters were polymorphic. The coefficient of genetic variation ranged from 3.43% for average leaf length to 96.09% for the beginning of flowering, but were generally low (CVg < 15%) and moderate for leaf mass related parameters (CVg: 20.81-35.08). Heritability varied from 45.95 for seedling vigor index to 98.64 for total leaf mass. Globally, the high heritabilities of the various agronomic characters were explanatory of the low coefficients of genetic variation recorded. A total of 9 accessions over the 70 were found promising for use in the C. procera breeding program for final emergence percentage, speed of emergence index, beginning of flowering and number of flowers per inflorescence. They have also, presented forage potential (average total fresh mass: 1115.52 g and average leaf dry mass: 19.26 g), and should be preserved for posterity.
Jolinda Mércia de Sá, Marilia Hortência Batista Silva Rodrigues, Camile Dutra Lourenço Gomes, Valéria Fernandes de Oliveira Sousa, Barbara Genilze Figueiredo Lima Santos, Marinês Pereira Bomfim, Francisco Edu de Andrade, Danielle Maria do Nascimento, Ednaldo Barbosa Pereira Junior
Aim: Was aimed at to evaluate the initial growth of the melon plant under saline conditions in different types of substrates.
Place of Study: The work was accomplished in the Federal University of Campina Grande in Pombal, Paraíba in Brazil.
Methodology: Four proportions of substrates were used: S1 (100% Commercial Substrate Carolina Soil ® — SCC); S2 (50% of SCC and 50% of Sand); S3 (50% of SCC and 50% of Soil) and S4 (33,33% of SCC + 33,33% of Sand + 33,33% of Soil), and five levels of electric conductivity: T1 (0,3 dS m-¹); T2 (1,2 dS m-¹); T3 (2,2 dS m-¹); T4 (3,2 dS m-¹) and T5 (4,2 dS m-¹). The length of plantules was evaluated (aerial and root), stem diameter, number of leaves, mass dries (aerial, root and total), biomass production and index of tolerance.
Results: All the variables presented significant effect demonstrating that the appraised factors interfere simultaneously in the appraised characteristics.
Conclusion: In the conditions of the referred study, the salinity in the irrigation water interferes negatively in the initial growth of melon plant plantules. The formulation of composed substrate for the mixture of the commercial substrate Carolina Soil® with soil (50% of both) it was shown efficient in the initial growth of the melon plant to cultivate 'Amarelo Ouro' under conditions of saline stress.