Advancing Sustainable Agriculture: A Comprehensive Review of Organic Farming Practices and Environmental Impact

Narayana Varma *

Department of Agronomy, School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab- 144411, India.

Harshal Wadatkar

Department of Agronomy, School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab- 144411, India.

Rahul Salve

Department of Agronomy, School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab- 144411, India.

Tammineni Varun Kumar

Department of Agronomy, School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab- 144411, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Organic farming, characterized by the exclusion of synthetic fertilizers and chemical pesticides, represents a sustainable approach to agriculture. This study investigates the impact of organic farming practices on soil health, focusing on the proliferation and activity of soil microorganisms. Natural fertilizers such as farmyard manure, poultry litter, composts, green manures, and oil-free cakes were utilized to enhance soil fertility. The research reveals that these practices significantly improve soil health by fostering a robust microbiome, which is essential to the cycling of nutrients and overall health of the soil vitality. The safety and nutritional benefits of organic food products were also evaluated. Comparative analysis with conventionally grown foods indicates that organic produce contains lower levels of harmful residues such as pesticides, nitrates, metals, and antibiotics. This reduction in contaminants mitigates potential risks to human health associated with conventional farming practices. Furthermore, organic foods are found to be richer in essential nutrients, vitamins, and antioxidants, thereby offering superior nutritional value. The economic implications of organic farming were explored, highlighting its potential to enhance the economic viability of small-scale farmers. With increasing consumer awareness and demand for organic products, farmers practicing organic methods can command higher prices for their produce, thereby improving their economic sustainability and resilience. In conclusion, organic farming emerges as an environmentally friendly and economically viable alternative to conventional agriculture. By promoting soil health, reducing chemical residues in food, and meeting consumer demand for nutritious products, organic farming offers a pathway towards sustainable agricultural practices.

Keywords: Organic farming, soil health, food safety, economic sustainability


How to Cite

Varma, Narayana, Harshal Wadatkar, Rahul Salve, and Tammineni Varun Kumar. 2024. “Advancing Sustainable Agriculture: A Comprehensive Review of Organic Farming Practices and Environmental Impact”. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International 46 (7):695-703. https://doi.org/10.9734/jeai/2024/v46i72623.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Acharya S, Belbase P, Kaphle S, Bista A, Bhandari S. The effect of different fertilizers on vitamin C content of cauliflower. Agri-connection. 2020;5(1):16-17.

Acharya S, Belbase P, Kafle S, Bista A, Bhandari S. The effect of different fertilizers on vitamin C content of cauliflower. Agri-connection. 2020;5(1):16-17.

Adekiya AO, Agbede TM, Ejue WS, Aboyeji CM, Dunsin O, Aremu CO, et al. Biochar, poultry manure and NPK fertilizer: Sole and combine application effects on soil properties and ginger (Zingiber officinale); 2020.

Raj Janak, Sarita Jat, Manish Kumar, Reema, Anuradha Yadav. the role of organic farming in sustainable agriculture. Advances in Research. 2024;25(3):128-36.

Available:https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2024/v25i31058.

Jyothsna Koyi, Aakash, Jayadeva HM, Mahantesh B Nagangoudar. Cow based inputs for sustainable agriculture: A review. Archives of Current Research International. 2024;24(5):262-72.

Available:https://doi.org/10.9734/acri/2024/v24i5701.

Thakur N. Organic farming, food quality, and human health: A trisection of sustainability and a move from pesticides to eco-friendly biofertilizers. Probiotics in Agroecosystem. 2017:491-515.

Riyaz M, Mathew P, Zuber SM, Rather GA. Botanical pesticides for an eco-friendly and sustainable agriculture: New challenges and prospects. Sustainable Agriculture: Technical Progressions and Transitions. 2022:69-96.

Agbede TM. Effect of tillage, biochar, poultry manure and NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer, and their mixture on soil properties, growth and carrot (Daucus carota L.) yield under tropical conditions. Heliyon. 2021;7:e07391.

Alemu-Degwale. Effect of vermicompost on growth, yield and quality of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in Enebse Sar Midir District, Northwestern Ethiopia. Journal of Natural Sciences Research. 2016;6(3):51-63.

Arshpreet Kaur. Impact of various organic manures on growth, growth attributes and quality of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.). Int. J Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 2020;9(4):273-279.

Asai H, Rabenarivo M, Andriamananjara A, Tsujimoto Y, Nishigaki T, Takai T et al. Farmyard manure application increases spikelet fertility and grain yield of lowland rice on phosphorus-deficient and cool-climate conditions in Madagascar highlands, Plant Production Science; 2021.

DOI: 10.1080/1343943X.2021.1908150

Ashraf M, Aziz MA, Shahzad SM, Aziz A. Soil and plant nutrient dynamics in response to manuring with different organic wastes under alkaline conditions. Ann Agric Crop Sci. 2021; 6(1):1067.

Babu S, Singh R, Avasthe RK et al. Impact of land configuration and organic nutrient management on productivity, quality and soil properties under baby corn in Eastern Himalayas. Sci Rep. 2020;10: 16129 .

Available:https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73072-6.

Baranski M, Srednicka-Tober D, Volakakis N, Seal C, Sanderson R, et al. Higher antioxidant and lower cadmium concentrations and lower incidence of pesticide residues in organically grown crops: A systematic literature review and meta-analyses. Br. J Nutr. 2014;112:794-811.

BARC. Fertilizer recommendation guide-2012. farmgate, Dhaka-1215; BARC: Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2012.

Basnet B, Aryal A, Neupane A, KC B, Rai NH, Adhikari S, et al. Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of radish. Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources. 2021;4(2):167-174.

Kumar A, Kumar A, Kumar Yadav A, Thakur S. Impact of organic farming on eco-friendly sustainable agriculture: A review. The Pharma Innovation Journal. 2022;11(2):709-15.

Gelaye Y. Effect of combined application of organic manure and nitrogen fertilizer rates on yield and yield components of potato: A review. Cogent Food & Agriculture. 2023, Dec 31;9(1):2217603.

Basnet M, Shakya S, Baral B. Response of organic manures on post-harvest and soil nutrient restoration on cauliflower production. Journal of Agriculture and Environment. 2017;18:67-72.

Bengtsson J, Ahnstrom J, Weibull AC. The effects of organic agriculture on biodiversity and abundance: A meta-analysis. J Appl. Ecol. 2005;42:261-69.

Bhandari S, Pandey SR, Giri K, Wagle P, Bhattarai S, Neupane RB. Effects of different fertilizers on the growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in summer season in Chitwan, Nepal. Archives of Agriculture and Environmental Science. 2019;4(4):396-403.

Bharat Lal Kushwaha, Singh VK, Kaptan Baboo, Satya Dev, Hari Prakash Namdev. Response of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars to organic sources of plant nutrients. Int. J Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 2021;10(03):1948-1955.

Chandra A, Pardha Saradhi P, Maikhuri RK, Saxena KG, Rao KS. Impact of farm yard manure on cropping cycle in a rainfed agroecosystem of Central Himalaya. Vegetos. 2021;34:249-262.

Chaudhary MV, Thakur Nidhi. Future prospects of organic farming: A review. Bhartiya Krishi Anusandhan Patrika. 2021;(36):108-111.

Crowder DW, Northfield TD, Strand MR, Snyder WE. Organic agriculture promotes evenness and natural pest control. Nature. 2010;466:109-12.

De Ponti T, Rijk B, Van Ittersum MK. The crop yield gap between organic and conventional agriculture. Agric. Syst. 2012;108:1-9.

Dhama AK. Organic farming for sustainable agriculture. Agro Benificial Publishers (India); 1996.

Dixit KG, Gupta BR. Effect of farmyard manure, chemical and bio-fertilizers on yield and quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and soil properties. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science. 2000;48(4):773-780.

Enujeke EC. Effects of poultry manure on growth and yield of improved maize in Asaba Area of Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 2013;4(5):24-30.

Funk C, Kennedy B. The new food fights: US public divides over food science. Washington, DC: Pew Res. Cent; 2016.

Seufert V, Ramankutty N. Many shades of gray—the context-dependent performance of organic agriculture. Sci. Adv. 2017; 3:e1602638.

Funk C, Kennedy B. The new food fights: US public divides over food science. Washington, DC: Pew Res. Cent; 2016.

Gererufae LA, Abraham NT, Reda TB. Growth and yield of onion (Allium cepa L.) as affected by farmyard manure and nitrogen fertilizer application in Tahtay Koraro District, Northwestern Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia. Vegetos. 2020;33:617-627.

Gomiero T, Paoletti MG, Pimentel D. Energy and environmental issues in organic and conventional agriculture. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 2008;27:239-54.

Gyewali B, Maharjan B, Rana G, Pandey R, Pathak R, Poudel PR. Effect of different organic manures on Growth, yield, and quality of radish (Raphanus sativus). SAARC J Agric. 2020;18(2):101-114.

Hand book of Manures and Fertilizers; 1964.

Hardman CJ, Harrison DPG, Shaw PJ, et al. Supporting local diversity of habitats and species on farmland: a comparison of three wildlife-friendly schemes. Journal of Applied Ecology. 2016;53:171-180.

Holík L, Hlisnikovsky L, Kunzova E. The effect of mineral fertilizers and farmyard manure on winter wheat grain yield and grain quality. Plant Soil Environ. 2018; 64:491-497.

Irfan A, Ishtiaq A, Muhammad N, Malik MY, Bashir A. A review on organic farming for sustainable agricultural production. Pure and Applied Biology. 2016;5(2):277-286.

Holík L, Hlisnikovsky L, Kunzova E. The effect of mineral fertilizers and farmyard manure on winter wheat grain yield and grain quality. Plant Soil Environ. 2018;64:491-497.

Gyewali B, Maharjan B, Rana G, Pandey R, Pathak R, Poudel PR. Effect of different organic manures on Growth, yield, and quality of radish (Raphanus sativus). SAARC J Agric. 2020;18(2):101-114.

Bharat Lal Kushwaha, Singh VK, Kaptan Baboo, Satya Dev, Hari Prakash Namdev. Response of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars to organic sources of plant nutrients. Int. J Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 2021;10(03):1948-1955.

Verma SN, Sharma M, Verma A. Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth, quality and yield of soybean [Glycine max]. Annals of Plant and Soil Research. 2017;19(4):372-376.

Yadav RH, Vijayakumari B. Impact of vermicompost on biochemical characters of chilli (Capsicum annum). Journal of Ecotoxicology and Environmental Monitoring. 2004;14(1):51-56.

Adekiya AO, Agbede TM, Ejue WS, Aboyeji CM, Dunsin O, Aremu CO, et al. Biochar, poultry manure and NPK fertilizer: Sole and combine application effects on soil properties and ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) performance in a tropical Alfisol. De Gruyter. 2020; 5:30-39.

Pandit NR, Mulder J, Hale SE, et al. Biochar improves maize growth by alleviation of nutrient stress in a moderately acidic low-input Nepalese soil. Sci Total Environ. 2018;625:1380-1389.

Agbede TM. Effect of tillage, biochar, poultry manure and NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer, and their mixture on soil properties, growth and carrot (Daucus carota L.) yield under tropical conditions. Heliyon. 2021;7:e07391.

Widowati Sutoyo, Karamina H, Fikrinda W. Soil amendment impact to soil organic matter and physical properties on the three soil types after second corn cultivation. AIMS Agriculture and Food. 2020;5(1):150-168.

Mamaril CP, Castillo MB, Sebastian LS. Facts and myths about organic fertilizers; Philippine Rice Research Institute (Phil Rice): Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines; 2009.

Meena AK, Chhipa BG, Ameta KD, Meena SC. Yield and quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon Mill.) as influenced by application of organic substances under protected condition. Int. J Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 2021;10(03): 577-583.

Michael Clark, David Tilman. Comparative analysis of environmental impacts of agricultural production systems, agricultural input efficiency, and food choice. Environ. Res. Lett. 2017;12(6): 064016.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aa6cd5

Mishra A, Acharya B, Devkota R, Sapkota S, Sedai U. The Effect of different fertilizers; 2018.

Mishra B, Sahu GS, Tripathy P, Mohanty S, Pradhan S. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on growth, yield and quality of okra under integrated nutrient management. Int. J Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 2019;8(08):66-73.

Mondelaers K, Aertsens J, Van Huylenbroeck G. A meta-analysis of the differences in environmental impacts between organic and conventional farming. Br. Food J. 2009; 111:1098-119.

Mukherjee R Lal. biochar impacts on soil physical properties and greenhouse gas emissions. Agronomy. 2013;3:313-339.

Nasrin A, Khanom S, Hossain SA. Effects of vermicompost and compost on soil properties and growth and yield of Kalmi (Ipomoea Aquatica Forsk.) in mixed soil. Dhaka Univ. J Biol. Sci. 2019;28(1):121-129.

Nenna MG, Ugwumba COA. Utilization of organic farming technologies among small-scale farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research. 2014;3(1). ISSN (Online): 2319-1.

Pandit NR, Mulder J, Hale SE, et al. Biochar improves maize growth by alleviation of nutrient stress in a moderately acidic low-input Nepalese soil. Sci Total Environ. 2018;625:1380-1389.

Ponisio LC et al. Diversification practices reduce organic to conventional yield gap. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Sci. 2015; 282:20141396.