Open Access Short Research Article

Biochemical Differences between Bolted and Non-Bolted Onions

Kalyani Gorrepati, A. Thangasamy, Ashok Kumar, Prashant Satpute, Major Singh

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 30-35
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i630534

The present experiment was conducted to know the biochemical differences between bolted and non-bolted onion of Indian varieties. Onion is a very important vegetable consumed for its flavour and health benefits. Bolting, which is an undesirable character in onion bulb production, produces bulbs with central hard and hollow cellulosic stalk and makes them unmarketable. In this research four different varieties of onion (three red onion varieties (viz; Bhima Kiran; Bhima Shakti; N-2-4-1) and one white variety (Bhima Shweta)) were studied to verify differences between bolted and non-bolted bulbs. The results showed significant difference in total soluble solids and total phenol content in bolted and non-bolted onions. In bolted onion bulbs, total soluble solid content varied from 11.2 to 11.83 °Brix and 12.0 to 12.9 °Brix in non-bolted onion varieties. In bolted onion, the total phenol content was 27.0, 52.2, 61.3 and 65.8 mg GAE/100 g in Bhima Shweta, Bhima Kiran, N-2-4-1 and Bhima Shakti respectively. The phenol content varied from 26.2 to 48.7 mg GAE/100 g in non-bolted onion with lowest in Bhima Shweta and highest in N-2-4-1. No significant difference was observed for moisture content and total flavonoid content in bolted and non-bolted onion. 

Open Access Short Research Article

Yield and Precocity Features of Okra Varieties in Piranhas–Alagoas State/Brazil

Kleyton Danilo da Silva Costa, Helena Thays Rodrigues Filgueira, Francismária Freitas de Lima, Luiz Thiago Soares Almeida, Jivanilsson Silva dos Santos, Denisson Lima Nascimento, Maria Marta Soares Bizerra, Fabiano Barbosa de Souza Prates, Michelangelo de Oliveira Silva, Ana Maria Maciel dos Santos, Maria Amélia de Oliveira Silva

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 36-43
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i630535

The aim of the current research is to assess the yield and precocity features of five okra varieties (Quiabel, IAC Midori, TPX-49, Valença and Santa Cruz) in Piranhas – Alagoas state/Brazil. The experiment was conducted in Alagoas Federal Institute, from February to May 2019. The experiment followed a randomized block design with four repetitions per treatment; 20 experimental plots, in total. The following variables were assessed after harvesting: fruit length; fruit yield until the 3rd harvest; yield until the 6th harvest; yield until the 9th harvest; yield until the 12th harvest; yield until the 15th harvest and yield until the 18th harvest. Commercial hybrid Quiabel and experimental hybrid TPX-49 had the best yield performance in all harvests: 8,282.98 kg.ha-1 and 6,882.78 kg.ha-1, respectively. Hybrid Quiabel was the most precocious variety in the initial harvests, followed by experimental hybrid TPX-49 and by free pollination Valença varieties. Variety Free pollination Santa Cruz was the least precocious, even though it was the most cultivated variety in the region.

Open Access Short Research Article

Performance of Corn Cultivars in the Fertilization Function in the Alagoas State, Brazil

Magna Pereira dos Santos, Heverly Lima Nascimento, Luiz Carlos Alves dos Santos, Luiz Paulo Ferreira Neves, Ênio Gomes Flôr Souza, Michelangelo de Oliveira Silva, Kleyton Danilo da Silva Costa, Fabiano Barbosa de Souza Prates

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 60-66
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i630539

Brazil is the third largest corn producer in the world. Despite the country’s position in the maize production ranking, some Brazilian regions have a significantly low maize crop yield, mainly due to lack of management recommendations for it. Thus, the aim of the current study is to evaluate the performance of maize cultivars subjected, or not, to NPK fertilization in Alagoas State hinterland. The experiment was carried out at Federal Institute of Alagoas – Piranhas Campus – from February 2019 to June 2019. It followed a randomized block experimental design at factorial arrangement (5x2), with four repetitions, which totaled 40 experimental plots. The first factor comprised five maize cultivars (BRS Caatingueiro, M274 Morumbi, BRS 2022, Crioula Cateto and AG 1051), whereas the second one encompassed NPK fertilizer application, or not. Fertilization led to the best results in most of the evaluated parameters and to increased grain yield (3,037.7 kg ha-1) in all evaluated cultivars. These outcomes evidenced how the fertilization technique, mainly the one comprising NPK macronutrients, can help increasing yield in maize production systems in Alagoas State hinterland. Among the cultivars evaluated, the hybrid 'AG 1051' was the one that stood out the most, except for the ear insertion height, in all the analyzed variables.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Plant Spacing and Balanced Fertilization on Growth and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Red Laterite Zone of Purulia District of West Bengal

D. C. Mahato, D. Dutta, L. Maity, P. Biswas, B. Mahato, Chinanshuk Ghosh, F. H. Rahman, S. Thakur, V. Pradhan, A. Chakraborty, S. K. Bhattacharjya, M. K. Bhattacharjya, S. Patra

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i630529

The experiment was conducted at Krishi Vigyan Kendra Kalyan, Purulia adopted village namely Jambad in Purulia District of West Bengal during kharif season of 2019. The experiment was laid out in nine strip plots with plot size of 48 sq m2. m including three different doses of Nutrients viz. N: P2O5:K2O - 120:60:60, 150:60:60 and 150:75:60 at densities comprising of 55,555 plants/ha (60 X 30 cm), 66,666 plants/ha (60 X 25 cm) and 83,333 plants/ ha (60 X 20 cm) by using of four row multi-crop planter with the objective of observing the effect of plant spacing on yield attributes and yield of maize hybrids. The yield attributing factor as cob length was determined and initially the yield was recorded for application of different doses of nutrients. In case of plant spacing with the optimum doses of nitrogen and phosphorus the only factor contributing to increase in grain yield per unit area was the number of plants grown in the area, so the maximum grain yield (7.5 t/ha) was obtained at (60 X 20 cm) spacing with application of nutrient doses of 150:75:60. Drastic reduction in grain yield occurred at wider plant spacing i.e. (60 X 30 cm). It was due to the reason that increase in cob length did not occur proportionately to the reduction in plant population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Technology Demonstration on Productivity of Greengram (Vigna radiata L.) in North Eastern Ghat Zone of Odisha

S. K. Samantaray, F. H. Rahman, P. K. Panda, D. Patri, S. Sahu

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 23-29
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i630533

The study was conducted to recognize the technological impact of proper package of practice for the production and productivity of Greengram in comparison to the traditional practices followed by the farmers of Ganjam district of Odisha. To enable impact assessment 100 farmers of which 50 farmers followed technology demonstration and 50 followed traditional method of cultivation were selected for the study. The results of technology demonstrations showed that farmers got increased productivity of Greengram notably by switching over to improved variety and adoption of improved production technology. From the experiment it was observed that the improved Greengram variety IPM 02-14 recorded the 42.5% higher yield compared to the local variety PDM-139. Technology gap and the technology index values were 230 kg/ha and 23%, respectively. Farmers are experiencing yield loss due to the high incidence of yellow mosaic vein diseases of the crop. The increment in productivity of the crop under technology demonstrations was not only due the adopting improved variety which is resistant to yellow mosaic vein diseases but also following other attributing factors like seed treatment with bio-fertilizers, proper seed rate, application of herbicide, judicious dose of fertilizers and plant protection measure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Split Application of Nitrogen on Growth and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Ainuddin Amani, Mohammad Aalim Behzad

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 44-48
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i630536

Studies pertaining to effect of split application of nitrogen on growth and yield of wheat was carried out at Agricultural Research Farm of Kunduz University during 2018-19 using RCBD with three replications. Nitrogen by Urea was applied; 50% N as basal + 50% N at tillering, 50% N as basal + 50% N at flowering, 50% N as basal + 25% N at tillering + 25% N at flowering, 33% N as basal + 66% N at tillering, 33% N as basal + 66% N at flowering, 33% N at basal + 33% N at tillaring +33% N at flowering. The results showed that split application of nitrogen in 2 split (33% N as basal + 66% N at tillering) increases the all growth parameters [height of plant (105.25 cm), number of tillers (6.16 tiller plant-1), spicks (5.63 spick plant-1) and spikelet per spick (16.66 spikelet spick-1), the yield and yield component; 1000 grain weight (34.60 g), grain yield (5208.22 kg ha-1) and straw yield (8853.98 kg ha-1) increases with 33% N as basal + 33% N at tillering + 33% N at flowering.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Pre and Post-emergence Herbicides on Weed Population and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) Crop

Faisul-Ur- Rasool, S. A. Hakeem, Z. A. Dar, M. I. Bhat, B. A. Lone, S. A. Haq, I. A. Jehangir

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 49-55
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i630537

Field experiments were conducted during 2017-18 at Dryland Agriculture Research Station, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir to evaluate the impact of post and pre emergence herbicides application on weed growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.). The experiment was laid in a randomized block design with four replications using maize variety Bio-605. The experimental details are as: Atrazine 50% WP @ 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 as pre-emergence and paraquat dichloride 24 % SL @ 0.5 kg a.i. ha-1, 2,4-D Sodium salt 58% WSC @ 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 as post-emergence herbicides (application at 2-3 leaf stage of weeds), hand weeding as standard check and weedy check as control. The weeds mainly encountered during the cropping season were Echinochloa spp., Eleusine indica, Digitaria sanguinalis, Amaranthus viridis, Sorghum halepense and Cyperus spp. Among all the herbicidal treatments, the highest weed control efficiency was recorded with the application of atrazine 50% WP @ 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 as pre-emergence with values ranging from 75.52% to 83.10% except for Cyperus spp. with only 2.84% efficiency. Also there was no compromise on maize yield with the application of atrazine as compared to paraquat dichloride and 2,4-D. This is an indication of the reliability and the potential of the atrazine 50% WP @ 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 as pre-emergence herbicide in the efficient control of weeds in maize crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Post-harvest Quality of Table Grapes Marketed in the Municipality of Areia in the State of Paraíba

Cássio Ricardo Gonçalves da Costa, Ailson de Lima Marques, Debora Coelho de Moura, Anne Carolline Maia Linhares, Sonaria de Sousa Silva, Maria Idaline Pessoa Cavalcanti, Denisvaldo Artur de Meireles, Ana Luíza de Melo Lucena

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 56-59
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i630538

The semi-arid region of Paraíba is known for the expansion of cultivated areas and agricultural produce, and the high yields and the quality of grapes. The objective of this work was to evaluate the quality table grapes for classification purposes according to the physical and physicochemical characteristics marketed in a local fair in the city of Areia - PB. The work was developed at the Laboratory of Technology of Agricultural Products (LPTA), Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB), Center of Agricultural Sciences (CCA), Campus II, Areia-PB. Table grapes were purchased at the free fair in the municipality of Areia. Two clusters were selected and analyzed according to the Standardization Primer and Classification of the Brazilian Program for Modernization of Horticulture, identifying the group, subgroup, class, subclass, category and the presence of defects (severe or mild). According to the evaluations carried out from the standardization primer, the fruits were slightly damage and/but not changing in their post-harvest quality. The fruits were classified according to commercial standards and suitable for human consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

What is the Ideal Test Piece Diameter for Laboratory Penetration Soil Resistance (SPR) Testing?

Giordani Henrique Ferreira da Cruz, Aloisio Bianchini, Matheus Azevedo dos Santos, Rodrigo Fernandes Daros, Matheus Santos de Deus, João Vitor Monteiro Chiapinotto

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 67-76
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i630540

The objective of this work was to determine the adequate diameter of soil samples as a function of the cone base area for soil penetration resistance (SPR) tests in the laboratory. The experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Agronomy and Animal Science (FAAS) – UFMT. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 3 x 3 x 2 factorial scheme, with 3 basal areas of the cone (11.05 mm2, 33.70 mm2, 52.17 mm2), 3 diameters of the specimen (50 mm, 100 mm, 150 mm) and presence and absence of volumetric rings during the penetrometer tests, with a total of 11 replicates, which were divided between two data acquisition speeds. The specimens were prepared in a protected environment (greenhouse) undergoing a curing process, with 54 cycles of drying and moistening (6 months). The soil density was obtained in the field, to reproduce the same density in the laboratory. In this way, the volume of the dry mass of soil was calculated for each ring starch. All the rings were made with 12 cm of height and 10 cm were occupied by the soil. Tubes (PVC) intended for the production of unconfined test specimens were opened longitudinally to enable their removal at the time of testing without damaging the structure. The SPR tests were performed in the Laboratory of Agricultural Machines and Motors (LAMAM). The data obtained were analyzed by variance. The specimen of 50mm diameter was insufficient to be representative of the field. The presence of the ring influenced the SPR, causing an increase of the same. The cone of a smaller size (11.05 mm²) was shown to be more suitable for SPR in the laboratory. The SPR test proved to be more efficient without the volumetric ring.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Yield of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] as Influenced by Organic Manures and Superabsorbent Polymers

Qasimullah Ryan, K. N. Geetha, Rahmatullah Hashimi, Rafiq Atif, Sylvestre Habimana

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 77-85
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i630541

Aims: The study aimed to assess soybean response to organic manures and superabsorbent polymers along with recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF: 25-60-25 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1).

Study Design: The experiment was tested with a randomized complete block design (RCBD).

Place and Duration of Study: The field experiment was carried out during 2017-2018 at Zonal Agricultural Research Station (ZARS), All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP) on soybean, University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), GKVK, Bengaluru-560065, Karnataka, India.

Methodology: The field experiment was having eight treatments with three replications. The treatments comprised RDF in combination with farmyard manure (FYM) at the rate of 3.0 t ha-1, potassium polyacrylate at the rate of 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 kg ha-1, pusa hydrogel, humic acid and vermicompost at the rate of 7.5 kg ha-1, 3.0 kg ha-1 and 3.0 t ha-1, respectively.

Results: The results revealed that RDF with potassium polyacrylate at the rate of 7.5 kg ha-1 recorded significantly higher with respect to growth parameters viz., plant height (74.6 cm), number of branches plant-1 (14.2), leaf area (2394 cm2 plant-1) and total dry matter (57.3 g plant-1) and yield attributes like number of pods plant-1 (58.4), seed weight plant-1 (28.62 g), seed yield (2707 kg ha-1), stalk yield (4370 kg ha-1) and harvest index (0.38). The net returns (Rs. 68255 ha-1) and B:C ratio (3.58) were also recorded higher in the treatment having potassium polyacrylate at the rate of 7.5 kg ha-1 and RDF.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Genotype, Location and Plant Age on Incidence and Severity of Cassava Mosaic and Cassava Brown Streak Diseases in Western Kenya

L. N. Navangi, S. M. Githiri, E. M. Ateka, E. Kanju, S. Tumwegamire, T. L. Munga

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 86-104
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i630543

This study aimed to assess elite cassava genotypes for resistance to cassava mosaic and brown streak diseases at Alupe, Kakamega and Kibos in Western Kenya. The trial was conducted using alpha lattice balanced design using 24 genotypes with three replicates, for an extended cropping cycle between 2016 and 2017. Results for combined analysis of variance showed that genotype, location, month after planting (MAP) and their interactions significantly influenced (P ≤ 0.05) incidence and severity of CMD and CBSD. High CMD incidence and severity was recorded across all cassava genotypes at Alupe (mean 0.730; 1.256) as opposed to Kakamega (mean 0.000; 1.000) and Kibos (mean 0.031; 1.006). Similarly, CBSD root incidence and severity were high in Alupe (mean 0.848; 1.310), as opposed to Kakamega (mean 0.020; 1.006) and Kibos (mean 0.188; 1.078). Within location analysis for CMD and CBSD incidence and severity among cassava genotypes 12 MAP gave varied results. Genotypes Kibandameno and Kalawe had the highest CMD and CBSD incidence and severity in all three locations. Whiteflies abundance was significantly influenced (P ≤ 0.05) by genotype, location, MAP time and interaction. Significant interaction (P ≤ 0.05) between all disease resistance traits further confirmed dual resistance amongst the cassava genotypes, however, this was location specific and not generalized. These findings should be of value to cassava breeding and development efforts throughout Kenya, and other parts of sub Saharan Africa affected or threatened by CMD and CBSD and will hopefully contribute to the development of much improved and/or resistant genotypes and, ultimately more effective management of two of Africa's most pernicious threats to food security

Open Access Original Research Article

Increased Crop Yield Affected the Improved Cropping System in Agriculture Dry Land

. Rohit, Jitendra Singh

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 105-110
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i630545

The present study evaluate and disseminate the improved rainfed cropping systems, on farm trials and demonstration was conducted at National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) village Nagla Dulhe Khan. Yield of dry land crops is very low due to various reasons. Farm trials were conducted to evaluate different cropping system practices at village Nagla Dulhe Khan. Trials and demonstrations were carried out at farmer’s field to show the worth of improved cropping system practices for horizontal spread of improved agro-technologies. 54.5 percent increased in the yield was found by adopting intercropping of chick pea and mustard (5:1). Improved cropping system practiced resulted in higher yield, higher net returns and higher B: C ratio over farmers practice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Soil Coverage on Evapotranspiration and Dual Crop Coefficients on Soybean

João Danilo Barbieri, Paulo Sérgio Lourenço de Freitas, Rivanildo Dallacort, Roberto Rezende, André Luiz Biscaia Ribeiro da Silva, William Fenner, Marco Antônio Camillo de Carvalho

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 111-125
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i630546

Crop coefficient (Kc) study is the main tool used to determine the plant water consumption enabling irrigation management. The dual Kc is related to the evaporation coefficient of water from the soil (Ke), therefore, the objective of the work was to evaluate the influence of the soil coverage, in the variability of the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) of soybean and the dual Kc. The Kc values were determined by the ratio between ETc and ETo (reference evapotranspiration). ETo was estimated using the methodology proposed by Penman-Monteith FAO-56. The ETc values were obtained by the water input and output ratio of the weighing lysimeters system for the culture development phases established as initial; development; intermediate and final. The culture presented a cycle of 118 days for both treatments; the volume of the water precipitated and supplied by irrigation was 786.4 and 89 mm, respectively. The water consumption determined by ETc during the crop cycle was 699.10; 672.57; 649.06; 724.02; 643.46 and 638.12 mm, respectively for levels 0; 2; 4; 6; 8 and 10 t ha-1 of the dry mass of Brachiaria. The average dual Kc obtained was 1.60; 1.48; 1.40; 1.53; 1.42 and 1.47, respectively for coverings and a reduction in Kc was observed for treatments with soil coverage. Yield and development of the root system, were increase on soil coverage of 2 and 4 t  ha-1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Salinity on the Germination of Two Varieties of Lycopercicum esculentum: Campell 33 and Rio Grande

Brhadda Najiba, Ziri Rabea, Gmira Najib, Adey Souleymane Adam, Fahad Kaoutar

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 126-141
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i630547

This project aims to determine the optimal conditions for a good germination of the Rio Grande and Campbell 33 varieties of Lycopersicum esculentum. The several parameters were studied: The culture conditions, the tolerance to salinity, the total soluble aerial sugars levels, the dry matter of the aerial part and the sensitivity index.

After 12 days, seed germination in a peat-sand mixture reached 10% in the Rio Grande variety and 4.8% in the Campbell 33 variety. When the seeds germinated in vitro, the percentage reached 75% for the Rio Grande variety and 60% for the Campbell 33. In petri dishes, the percentage of germination increased to 100% for both varieties. The salinity tolerance of both varieties was also studied. Significant decreases in capacity, speed, and germination rate were observed as a result of salt stress. The greatest reductions in germination were obtained at concentrations of 400 mM NaCl and MgSO4, and 200 and 400 mM CaCl2 for the Campbell 33 variety. Total soluble aerial sugars levels increased with salt concentrations, more markedly in Rio Grande, while the evolution of dry matter of the aerial part and the root volume decreased significantly. The variation of the sensitivity index as a function of the concentrations was treated.

Open Access Review Article

Experiment: Conceptual Basis

Joao Gilberto Correa da Silva

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 7-22
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i630530

Texts and teaching of Experimental Statistics emphasize the statistical analysis of experiments and superficially consider the conceptual basis of experimental research. Definitions of basic concepts are imprecise, incoherent and ambiguous. This is the case, for example, with the concepts of experimental material, experimental factor, experimental unit and experimental error. In particular, the lack of distinction between experimental factor and unit factor and between the two classes of experimental factor: treatment factor and intrinsic factor leads to flaws in the plan and analysis of experiments that originate biased inferences. This approach gives rise to ignorance and misunderstanding of these concepts, underestimation of the importance of the planning of the experiment and, consequently, the inefficiency of many research. This paper reviews and reformulates important concepts with the purpose of contributing a rational basis for experimental research and, in particular, for Experimental Statistics. These revised concepts provides a basis for the formulation of an experiment structure that provides appropriate inferences for the achievement of the objectives of the experiment.