Open Access Short communication

Proximate and Detergent Fiber Fractions of de-Oiled African Olive (Canarium schweinfurthii Engl.) Residue: A Potential Animal Feedstuff

S. A. Ashom, I. Ajiji

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i122071

Proximate and detergent fiber composition of de-oiled African olive (Canarium schweinfurthii) residue were assessed using standard laboratory analytical procedures. Proximate composition showed 17.58 ± 0.21% crude protein, 4.13 ± 0.06% crude fat, 19.99 ± 0.89% crude fiber, 8.11 ± 0.33% ash and 50.20 ± 1.19% soluble carbohydrate. Detergent fiber components were 54.74±0.0745% NDF, 38.35 ± 0.59% ADF, 14.37 ± 0.68% ADL, 23.98 ± 0.10% cellulose and 16.40 ± 0.13% hemicellulose. Quantitative compositions of proximate and detergent fiber fractions were characteristic of roughage. De-oiled African olive pulp residue is relatively fair in protein and a good source of carbohydrate and digestible fiber for animal nutrition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential Secondary Metabolites of Streptomyces sp. and Trichoderma sp. in Suppressing the Percentage of Spodoptera litura Attacks on Corn Plants

Penta Suryaminarsih, Ika Nurfitriana, Tri Mujoko, Noni Rahmadhini

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 13-20
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i122073

Spodoptera litura F. (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) is one of the main pests on corn which is polyphagous and can cause crop failure due to damage to the leaves of the plant. Secondary metabolite compounds produced by microorganisms have many roles and functions, namely as compounds to protect plants from pest attacks. Streptomyces sp. and Trichoderma sp. are biological control agent which have the potential to produce chitinase enzymes capable of degrading the cell walls of larval and pupal stages. This study aims to determine the potential of secondary metabolites of Streptomyces sp. and Trichoderma sp. on various production media on the percentage of S. litura larval attack on corn plants. The study was conducted using a completely randomized factorial design with the first factor being the types and combination of biological control agents used, namely Streptomyces sp. and Trichoderma sp. While the second factor is the type of propagation media used i.e glucose nitrate (GN) and potato dextrose agar (PDA). The results showed that the combination of Streptomyces sp. and Trichoderma sp. on PDA production media with a concentration ratio of 5:1 can increase the potential of secondary metabolites in suppressing the percentage of S. litura larval attack on corn plants by up to 10%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Castor Seed Oil: A Promising Biomitecide for Sustainable Management of the Red Coffee Mite (Oligonychus ilicis) (McGregor, 1917) (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae)

Thiago Rodrigues Dutra, Claudiane Martins da Rocha, Anderson Mathias Holtz, Tatiane Pereira Cofler, Ronilda Lana Aguiar, José Romário de Carvalho, Ana Beatriz Mamedes Piffer, Amanda Gonçalves Alves, Matheus de Paula Gomes, Irany Rodrigues Pretty, Patrícia Soares Furno Fontes

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 21-28
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i122074

The coffee red mite [Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917)] (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) is one of the main causes of conilon coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre & Froehn) crop damage due to its phytophagous habit. Nowadays, environment and human harmful synthetic pesticides are used to control this pest. In this context, plant-derived bioactive compounds have been studied as a sustainable alternative for the pest mite management in crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate the castor (Ricinus communis) seed oil action on eggs, larvae, nymph (protonymph and deutonymph) and adults of O. ilicis. Coffee leaf discs (4 cm in diameter) containing 12 individuals of O. ilicis were sprayed with castor seed oil at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0% (v/v) using airbrush. The ovicidal and mortality activity of this extract were evaluated against O. ilicis. The effective concentration of castor oil to cause 50% inhibition of O. ilicis larvae hatching (LC 50) was 1.26% (v/v). Oligonychus ilicis treated with this oil at a concentration of 3.0% presented a larvae hatching percentage of 29.3%, lower than that obtained for the control treatment (79.1%). Castor seed oil 3.0% (v/v) was highly toxic to nymphs and adults of O. ilicis with mortality of 96 and 88%, respectively. Castor seed oil was effective for larvae hatching inhibition and nymphs and adults mortality of O. ilicis, being promising for the coffee red mite sustainable biocontrol.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diallel Analysis for Yield and Quality Characteristics in Melon

Francisco Alfonso Gordillo Melgoza, Fernando Borrego Escalante, Alejandro Javier Lozano del Río, Alfonso López Benítez, Adalberto Benavides Mendoza, Norma Angélica Ruiz Torres, Rosendo Hernández Martínez, Cristina Patricia Aguilar Aranda

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 29-36
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i122075

Aims: To estimate the effects of general and specific combinatorial fitness in parents and progeny on yield and fruit quality related traits of melon.

Study Design: A completely randomized block design with three replications was used to estimate the analysis of variance and the effects of general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA). The genetic analysis was carried out based on the Griffing Method II dialelic design (1956) with fixed effects model. Tukey P=.05 mean comparison analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was conducted in two stages. In stage 1, seed production of the parents and crosses was carried out at the Physiotechnical Greenhouse of the of the Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Saltillo, Coahuila. Mexico, between April and July 2021. In stage 2, the evaluation of the parents and progeny was carried out between August and November 2021 in the agricultural field "La Jaroza", Paila, Coahuila. México.

Methodology: In the present study, seven melon parents were analyzed. The parents were crossed in all possible combinations, without reciprocal crosses, resulting in 21 progenies, a total of 28 genotypes evaluated.

Results: The results showed significant differences between genotypes, general and specific combining ability effects (GCA and SCA) for almost all variables, except fruit number. The parent "(E x L)" showed the best yield and GCA effects, and participated in most of the outstanding crosses in yield, average fruit weight, fruit length, fruit width, flesh thickness, seed cavity and soluble solids. The "N x (E x L)" progeny excelled in yield and average fruit weight in SCA.

Conclusion: The parent "(E x L)" showed the best yield and GCA effects and participated in most of the outstanding crosses in yield, average fruit weight, fruit length, fruit width, flesh thickness, seed cavity and soluble solids. The progeny "N x (E x L)" excelled in yield in SCA.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nucleating Techniques in Forest Restoration of a Degraded Area in a Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest, Brazil

Jailson Medeiros Silva, Antônio Adriano da Costa, Sávio Maciel da Silva Sousa, Arliston Pereira Leite, Erika Rayra Lima Nonato, Juliana Araújo Leite, Gilvanete da Silva Henrique, Maria Alinny Cruz da Silva, Jacob Silva Souto

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 37-47
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i122076

The nucleator techniques have specific and very particular functions, helping the reoccupation of some animals in the area, besides the natural succession. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the nucleator techniques of artificial perches and branch windrowing for the establishment of forest restoration in a seasonally dry tropical forest, Brazil. The research was conducted at Experimental Farm Cachoeira de São Porfírio, municipality of Santa Luzia, Paraíba, Brazil, in the period from August 2017 to July 2018. Two nucleator techniques were used, the artificial perches and branch windrowing. For both, the randomized block design was employed, with five treatments composed of the spacing between the structures that composed the respective techniques (5x5m; 10x10m; 15x15m; 20x20m and control treatment), in four repetitions. For the artificial perches the number of seeds and excreta were evaluated, and for the branched perches the height of the branches and their decomposition over time was evaluated. in addition, the water content and temperature of the soil in the experimental area were also analyzed. The artificial perches provided insertion of seeds distributed in three botanical families and excreta to the degraded area, thus incorporating organic matter and enriching the seed bank of the experimental site. The largest site. The largest number of excreta was obtained on perches with greater distance between them, proving that the spacing of 15x15m is the most suitable. The volumes of branches were altered throughout the experimental period, with a faster decomposition of the branches in the control treatment compared to the other treatments, and their cover provided lower temperatures compared to soil exposed to full sun. Both techniques have high potential for forest restoration in degraded areas in seasonally dry tropical forests.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Performance of Farmers’ Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Varieties for Yield and Its Attributing Traits under Organic Cultivation

Hardev Choudhary, Parthkumar P. Dave, Noushad Parvez, Prakash Singh Raghuvanshi, Bajarang Lal, Satveer Singh, Rajkumar Rathore, Ranjit Kumar Singh, Rudrappa Zulapi, Agyaram Verma

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 48-55
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i122077

Background: The local cultivars and farmers’ plant varieties have good yield potential under a minimal input system. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to assess the performance of the farmers’ wheat varieties in Gandhinagar, Gujarat condition under organic cultivation during November-March (winter season) 2015-16 and 2016-17.

Study Design and Methodology: The field experiments were constituted in Randomized Complete Block Design having three replications of fifteen treatments comprising twelve farmers’ varieties and three checks. The observations on yield and its attributing traits were recorded.

Results: The pooled data analyzed over both years showed that the variety Mohit Gold was found significantly superior in terms of spike length (15.33 cm) and the number of spikelets per spike (22.97) among all the tests and checks during both years. Whereas, the significantly longest awn length was found in the Rajyog variety (14.48 cm). The number of grains per spike was reported superior in RK-7 (68.39) with at par RK-2 (64.18). However, the number of spikes per square meter (499.38) was recorded as significantly superior in HZG 30 which also reported a higher grain yielder per hectare with the next-best leaf length to superior check Bansi and at 94.05 cm plant height found at par to Mohit Gold (96.65 cm) and Rajyog (95.71 cm). Henceforth, HZG 30 can be a suitable option for wheat growers which might produce good biomass as well.

Thus, it is concluded with the recommendation to conduct more such trials in different wheat growing areas to generate reliable production data to identify potential cultivars for recent breeding programs.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comprehensive Strategy for Popularization of the Documented Farmer Innovations and Re-Inventions

Shireesha Devarakonda

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 56-63
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i122078

Farmer innovations and re-inventions is a subject that is increasingly making people sit up and think. At the very least it underpins a refreshing new approach to indigenous environmental knowledge that goes further than just passive admiration. At the most it is a potentially important new direction for research and extension wherever else the conventional approaches have failed to deliver. To highlight the value of this rich resource and to develop mechanisms for local innovations and re-inventions to find their way into the formal research and development system, documentation of farmer innovations and re-inventions is necessary to give the real picture of its wealth. Scientific enquiry into the documented practices would make it to a status of formal knowledge base and studying extent of adoption of these practices by the farmers will give the real picture of farmers innovations and re-inventions. Finding out the various constraints and analysis of the innovation development process will fetch a base to develop a comprehensive strategy which can be utilized by scientists, extentionists and user system. In this study 216 farmer innovations and re-inventions were identified in different farming situations of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states through informal interview with innovative farmers who were identified for the purpose of giving information on farmer innovations and re-inventions in the selected 3 districts and also from non sample area through secondary sources. Based on the various constraints faced and suggestion given by the innovative farmers a comprehensive strategy was developed which includes identification of farmer innovators, recognition of farmer innovators, documentation of farmer innovations and re-inventions, testing of farmer innovations and re-inventions for scientific rationality and validity, commercialisation of the innovations and re-inventions, networking of farmer innovators, providing farmer innovation support fund, monitoring and evaluation of the farmer innovator network groups, farmer innovator to farmer innovator cross visits and popularisation of farmer innovations and re-inventions. Strategy suggested in the study will help different agencies in promotion of farmer innovations and re-inventions and gives a brief comprehension and hence, it can be effectively utilised in promotion of these technologies through different agencies.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Acaricidal Study of Calotropis Gigantea Methanolic Extracts against (Rhipicephalus (B.) microplus) Ticks in Udaipur, Rajasthan, India

Anuj Dixit, Hakim Manzer

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 64-68
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i122079

The present research was conducted to find out  acaricidal efficacy of methanolic extracts of Calotropis gigantea against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks in Udaipur (Rajasthan). Larval packet Test (LPT) and Adult Immersion Test (AIT) were used to evaluate acaricidal efficacy. A total of four concentrations of the Calotropis gigantea extract (12.5%, 25%, 50%, and 100%) were used along with one control group with twice replications for each concentration were used in the bioassay. The Highest efficacy in both in-vitro tests (AIT and LPT) was recorded in 100% methanolic extracts of Calotropis gigantea. The Calotropis gigantea methanolic extracts displayed the highest IO% at 100% concentration, which was determined to be 67.46% in AIT. The methanolic extracts at 100% concentration had a minimum reproductive index of 0.16. During the study, it was clear that AIT had a lower reproductive index and a higher percent oviposition inhibition. Calotropis gigantea methanolic extracts in LPT demonstrated the highest efficacy at 100% concentration, which was of 64%. The Larval mortality increased trend with increasing concentrations of plant extracts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Burkina Rock Phosphate Fertilization Increases Nodulation and Yield of Cowpea under Zaï Cultivation in Sahelian Agro-ecosystem of Burkina Faso

Koulibi Fidèle Zongo, Mohamed Traoré, Daouda Guébré, Edmond Hien, Didier Blavet, Inamoud Ibny Yattara, Jean-Jacques Drevon

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 69-81
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i122080

Cowpea occupies a considerable place in the nutritional and economic balance of the rural population of Burkina Faso. However, its cultivation is marked by yield instability linked to soil depletion of nutrients, especially N and P, and irregular rains. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of phosphorus fertilization with the rock phosphate named BurkinaP, on the spatial and temporal variability of cowpea nodulation and yield. A multilocation test was conducted in 12 and 16 farmers’fields in 2013 and 2014, respectively, in 3 villages of 3 provinces of the northern region of Burkina Faso. Two treatments were compared: zaï without (ZS) and zaï with BurkinaP (ZP). Overall, dry weights of nodules and shoots at flowering stage, and grain at harvest, were significantly increased by BurkinaP. It is concluded that in soils where low availability of P limits crop yields of cowpea especially in arid sud-saharan areas of West Africa, the input of BurkinaP can improve cowpea N2-fixation, and increase and stabilize cowpea yields.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Evaluation of Biocontrol Potential of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Natural Ecosystem against Plant Pathogenic Fungi

M. S. Krithika, M. K. Shivaprakash, S. Adithya

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 82-90
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i122081

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are ubiquitous, Gram-positive, fermentative bacteria, which are    regarded as safe for both humans and the environment. The present study aimed to evaluate the biocontrol efficiency of LAB isolated from different natural ecosystems against fungal pathogens. A total of 30 LAB was isolated from rhizosphere soil and phyllosphere sample of Solanaceous crop viz., Brinjal, Capsicum, Chilli, Tomato, whey, and sauerkraut out of them 14, 9, 4 and 3 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from rhizosphere soil & phyllosphere sample of Solanaceous crops, whey and Sauerkraut respectively. The biocontrol ability of LAB isolates were tested against fungal plant pathogens such as Fusarium oxysporumPythium aphanidermatum, Sclerotium rolfsi, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria sp. agar well diffusion assay and mycelial growth inhibition in liquid culture. The results indicated that the isolates LAB 4, LAB 10, LAB 22, LAB 24 and LAB 29 were prominent in inhibiting the growth of most of the pathogens. Molecular characterization of selected LAB isolates revealed that LAB 4, LAB 10, LAB 22, LAB 24 belongs to Lactobacillus plantarum and LAB 29 belong to Leuconostoc mesentroides.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Detection of Acaricidal Resistance of Cattle Tick against Commercial Preparation of Deltamethrin and Cypermethrin in Three Villages of Udaipur District (Rajasthan)

Jitendra Kumar, Hakim Manzer

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 91-98
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i122082

Acaricidal resistance studies were carried out Department of Veterinary Parasitology in Udaipur to detect resistance status against commonly used commercial acaricides, 1.25% Butox® (Deltamethrin) and 10% w/v DERMEEZ® (Cypermethrin) against ticks collected from three villages (Vallabhnagar, Ranchorpura and Kikawas) of Udaipur, Rajasthan using Adult Immersion test (AIT) and Larval packet test (LPT). Recommended concentration of acaricides for AIT and LPT were used. Deltamethrin (0.075 g L-1) and Cypermethrin (0.05 g L-1) in AIT and Deltamethrin (0.06%) and Cypermethrin (0.2%) in LPT were used to evaluate acaricidal resistance. The overall analysis of data of the two tests with reference drug wise resistance for all three villages revealed that resistance to the deltamethrin was statistically higher than Cypermethrin. The drug wise results of AIT for deltamethrin for Vallabhnagar, Ranchorpura and Kikawas villages was 50%, 45% and 40% and for cypermethrin the resistance was 15%, 10% and 10% respectively. The results of LPT revealed that highest resistance in Vallabhnagar (27.5%), followed by Ranchorpura (21%) and Kikawas (19%) for deltamethrin while cypermethrin showed 19%, 11.5% and 9.5% resistance in Vallabhnagar, Ranchorpura and Kikawas, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lilium Cultivars and Flowering Behavior

Nasir Hamid Masoodi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 99-103
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i122083

Flowering behavior and flowering response of different Lilium genotypes was carried out during year 2018 at Division of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture SKUAST- K Shalimar. 15 cultivars including Navona , Malesco, Litouwen, Black Out, Revenna, Pink Palace, Tiber, Conca-D, Nello, Yellow Diamond, Tresor, Rialto, Courier, Cobra, and were evaluated on the basis of floral biology and flowering behavior. The outcome of the results revealed those maximum days to bud appearance after planting 44.48 days was recorded with cultivar Tiber where as minimum days 40.55 resulted with cultivar Black Out. Highest values for Bud diameter at maturity 26.59 mm was observed with cultivar Black Out and lowest values 18.87 mm with cultivar Navona. Bud length ranged 5.30 cm to 9.08 cm with cultivars Navona and Black Out, respectively. Number of florets per spike ranged minimum 2.36 to maximum 6.10 with cultivar Navano and Blackout respectively. Similar trend was followed for minimum to maximum values for floret diameter, inflorescence length and inflorescence diameter.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) on Shelf Life and Berry Quality Parameters of Manjri Naveen Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.)

S. D. Ramteke, A. H. Gavali, S. R. Bhagwat, Snehal M. Khalate, A. R. Langote, J. N. Kalbhor

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 104-110
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i122084

The experiment was conducted at ICAR- National Research Centre of Grapes, Pune during 2020-2021. The experiment was designed in a randomized block design (RBD) having five treatments and four replications. Pre-harvest sprays of NAA (50 ppm, 100 ppm, 150 ppm and 200 ppm) were taken for application and applied at the veraison stage. The result obtained from this study showed that the higher concentration of NAA (200 ppm) reduces the berry drop, percentage of rotten berries and lowest PLW (%) as compared to untreated vines. The spraying of NAA @ 50, 100, 150, 200 ppm had a significant effect on berry weight, bunch weight, TSS/acidity ratio. The biochemical properties of berries were not influenced by the spraying of NAA at different concentrations. Therefore, the vines applied with a higher concentration of NAA (200 ppm) were found to be effective in increasing the shelf life and yield of Manjri Naveen grapes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Nitrogen Management at the Reproductive Phase in Transplanted Rice

N. Akter, M. A. Sobahan, M. A. Badshah, S. A. Islam, R. Akter, M. Sh. Islam

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 111-120
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i122085

Nitrogen (N) is not only a major nutrient but also the most limiting nutrient element for rice cultivation. Efficient N fertilizer management is critical for the economic production of rice and the long-term protection of environmental quality. Considering the above facts, two field experiments were designed at Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) farm, Gazipur, Bangladesh during the transplanting Aman season (July to November), 2018-19 and the Boro season (December to May), 2019-20 to study the effects of four different N management on growth, yield attributes, yield and nitrogen uptake by rice variety BRRI dhan75 and BRRI dhan89. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design involving four different N management at different stages (Active tillering, Panicle initiation, Flowering and Heading) replicated three times. Results revealed that 69 kg N ha-1 (29.5 kg as basal + 29.5 kg at 15 DAT + 10 kg ha-1 at heading) would be a better option for higher yield in T. Aman rice While 120 kg N ha-1 (23 kg as basal + 40 kg at 20 DAT + 40 kg at 40 DAT + 17 kg ha-1 at heading) significantly improved growth, yield attributes and grain yield as well as nitrogen uptake by grain and straw. From the results, it can be said that application of N @10 kg ha-1 for T. Aman rice and N @17 kg ha-1 for Boro rice at the heading stage would reduce sterility and give a higher yield than BRRI recommended management. Hence, the study suggests that nitrogen management at the reproductive phase gives better performance to the T. Aman and Boro rice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers’ Perception of the Conservation of Afzelia africana around the Benoue National Park and Adaptation to the Drought in Controlled Condition of Afzelia africana Plants

Constantin Alega Amougou, . Tchobsala, Clautilde Megeuni, Jean Paul Celvin Mbamba Mbamba, Gilbert Haiwa, Il-Mataï Baïyabe, Daniel Brice Nkontcheu Kenko, Awo Miranda Egbe

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 121-130
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i122086

Aims: Afzelia africana is one of the most popular woody forage resources used by pastoralists in northern Cameroon in the dry season. In order to contribute to the sustainable management of this species in the Benoue National Park (BNP) and its surroundings, a study was conducted on the perception and conservation of this species, the knowledge of fodder ligneous by the riparian population of the BNP and adaptation to the drought of its seedlings.

Methodology: A survey was carried out in four surrounding villages of the BNP with 100 people per villages (Banda, Gamba, Sackdje and Guidjiba) making a total of 400 respondents. A hundred seedlings were monitored during two dry seasons and the mortality rate was calculated at the end of each dry season.

Results: This study determined the impact of drought on the survival of this species. The percentages of male respondents according to age group were 30%, 23%, 15%, 6% and 5% respectively for respondents whose age range was between 20-30 years, 10 and 20 years, 30- 40 years, 40 to 50 years and over 50 years. For the female sex these percentages are 10%, 5%,5% and 1% for the respective age groups of 10- 20 years, 20-30 years, 30-40 years and 40 to 50 years. On knowledge of A. africana, men have better knowledge with 80%; 74%; 70% and 64% respectively for Banda, Guidjiba, Gamba and Sackdje. On its conservation, 44% of the sample responded favorably. Sixteen forage trees belonging to 10 families were reported by the respondents, the Caesalpiniaceae family and the Mimosaceae family, were the most represented (nearly 18.75%). The average drought mortality rate was 20% after two droughts.

Conclusion: Such a study is a fundamental prerequisite for the development of restoration and sustainable management strategies for Afzelia africana in the Bénoué National Park (North Cameroon).

Open Access Original Research Article

Initial Growth of Sesame under Nutrient Omission

Edna Maria Bonfim-Silva, Jakeline Rosa de Oliveira, Luana Aparecida Menegaz Meneghetti, Wlly Cristiny Mendes, Alisson Silva Costa Custódio, Niclene Ponce Rodrigues de Oliveira, Rosana Andréia da Silva Rocha, Nathália Chagas de Brito Gomes, Daniel Silva Rodrigues, Vitor Oliveira Santos

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 131-145
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i122087

Sesame is an oilseed, nutritionally important in the world, for its seeds are rich sources of protein and calcium. Fertilizer management is fundamental for the development of this crop and consequently to increase its productivity. In this context, this research aimed to evaluate the initial development of sesame under nutrient omission in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The experiment was conducted under controlled conditions in a greenhouse, at the Federal University of Rondonópolis. The soil used was Oxisol and the crop used was black sesame. The design was in randomized blocks, with five treatments (absence of nitrogen, absence of phosphorus, absence of potassium, complete fertilization and control (absence of nutrients)) and four repetitions. The variables analyzed were pH, chlorophyll index, plant height, number of leaves, stem diameter, leaf area, aboveground dry mass, root volume, and root dry mass. The pH variable showed a statistical difference 45 days after emergence. The chlorophyll index showed a difference between 30 and 45 days after emergence. The stem diameter, leaf area, plant height, number of leaves, aboveground dry mass, root volume, and dry mass showed a difference among treatments. The absence of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium significantly affects the initial development of sesame.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Vermicomposting of Sericultural Wastes: An Eco-Friendly Approach for Effective Management of Seri-Wastes

Suraksha Chanotra, Suresh Verma, Muzafar Ahmad Bhat, Jyoty Angotra, Gurvinder Raj Verma, Seema Langer, Mohd Azam

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 146-156
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i122088

Vermicompost is one of the most essential and efficient organic manure commonly applied to the mulberry field in most the advance sericulture countries. Vermicompost is the one of the beneficial biotechnology is the bioconversion of organic waste into useful form. In the current experiment, soil treated with vermicompost of three different treatments viz., Cow dung + Seri-waste (T-1), Cow dung +Seri-waste (T-2) and Cow dung +Seri-waste + Rice straw (T-3) were recorded different parameters. After the application of different treatment of vermicompost the best recorded treatment as a T-as 6.7 pH. The moisture retention capacity was recorded as 52% in T-1 and 74% and 62% respectively in T-2 and T-3, with electric conductivity as 2-3ms/cm. The soil texture of soil treated with T-2 (Cow dung +Seri-waste) showed best input as 50% as compared to T-1 and least in T-3 as 40% and 35% respectively. Application of different treatment of vermicompost on soil   recorded to be T-2 (Cow dung +Seri-waste) showed positive response and high availability of microorganisms that are beneficial for the mulberry plant. The germination percentage of seed of mulberry treated with different treatment was recorded to be highest of 90% in T-2 and root and shoot length of plant grown as 26cm and 12cm as compared to T-1 and T-3 as 19 cm and 8cm, 34cm and 10cm respectively. Similarly, the moisture percentage and moisture retention capacity of T-2 was recorded to be highest as 74.64% and 73.21% respectively. Therefore, the current experiment opens new avenues vermicompost substrate for promoting of by-product utilization seri-waste in sericulture. The resultant product could be utilized for agricultural and horticultural as well. The present results offer numerous scopes for further sustainable agriculture with special emphasis on sericulture industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Energetic Efficiency of Forest Transport as a Tool for Sustainable Management of the Activity

Stanley Schettino, Thais Sales Gonçalves, Roldão Carlos Andrade Lima, Luciano José Minette, Rafael Dos Santos Figueiredo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 157-166
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i122089

Background: The global interest in reducing fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions is not recent. Under this light, this study aimed to correlate the energetic efficiency of wood transport, using the specific fuel consumption, with the variables wood drying time, truck power, fuel consumption and transport distance, in addition to adjusting equations for estimating energetic efficiency of the activity.

Study Design and Methodology:  From a database of a forest transport company operating in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, the results of 1,387 trips were compiled, with an average distance of 110 km, using forest bi-train and tri-train trucks, with which simulations were carried out considering the effect of wood drying time in the field, fuel consumption, truck power and transport distance on the energetic efficiency of wood transport.

Results: The results showed the existence of a strong negative correlation between the drying time of the wood in the field, the fuel consumption of the trucks and the increase in power in them and the energetic efficiency of the wood transport. Moreover, every 10 days of drying the wood in the field there is, on average, a 2.0% reduction in the moisture content of the wood and, as a consequence, an improvement of 2.8% in the energetic efficiency of wood transport, keeping the other conditions constant. Additionally, it was verified that a reduction of around 10% in fuel consumption is capable of providing an improvement of around 9.0% in the energetic efficiency of the activity; and that an increase of 20 CV in the power of the trucks represents a possible gain of up to 4.4% in the energetic efficiency of the wood transport activity, keeping all other variables constant.

Conclusion: It is concluded that the search for improvement in the energetic efficiency of the wood transport activity can represent an important tool for a management model based on the principles of sustainability by providing greater efficiency in fuel consumption and its associated benefits, such as the reduction of CO2 emissions per unit of wood transported.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Sweet Corn Hybrids (Zea mays saccharata) as Influenced by Soil and Foliar Application of Zinc

Altaf Hussain Lone, Tahir Ahmad Sheikh, Bilal Ahmad Lone, Tanveer Ahmad Ahngar, Zahoor Ahmad Baba, Moneesa Bashir, Mohmmad Aasif Sheikh, Mohd Salim Mir, Zahida Rashid, Shabeena Majid, . Faisul - Ur- Rasool, Z. A. Dar

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 167-174
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i122090

A field experiment entitled “Performance of sweet corn hybrids (Zea mays saccharata) as influenced by soil and foliar application of zinc” was conducted during kharif 2018 at the Experimental Farm of the Division of Agronomy, Wadura, SKUAST-K. The experiment comprised of two factors with three sweet corn hybrids, viz., Sugar 75, FSCH 75 and CMVL SC and four zinc levels, viz., soil application of ZnSO4 @ 20 kg ha-1, soil application of ZnSO4 @ 15 kg ha-1 + ZnSO4 (0.5%) foliar spray at knee high stage, soil application of ZnSO4 @ 15 kg ha-1 + ZnSO4 (0.5%) foliar spray at tasseling stage and ZnSO4 @ 15 kg ha-1 + ZnSB @ 200 ml/kg of seed laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The results of the experiment revealed that hybrids had a significant effect on the yield attributes and yield of sweet corn and among different hybrids, Sugar 75 recorded significantly higher yield attributes and yield of sweet corn. However, hybrids had no effect on number of cobs per plant. Hybrid FSCH 75 recorded significantly lowest values for yield attributes and yield. Among zinc levels, soil application of ZnSO4 @ 15 kg ha-1 + ZnSO4 (0.5%) foliar spray at knee high stage produced significantly higher yield attributes and yield whereas zinc level ZnSO4 @ 15 kg ha-1 + ZnSB @ 200 ml/kg of seed recorded significantly lowest values of all the yield attributes and yield. However, zinc levels had no effect on number of cobs per plant. The economic analysis showed that highest net profit and benefit cost ratio of ₹466230.5 and 4.37 respectively was recorded by hybrid sugar 75 applied with zinc level of ZnSO4 @ 15 kg ha-1 + ZnSO4 (0.5%) foliar spray at knee high stage whereas lowest net profit and benefit cost ratio of ₹294742.5 and 2.76 respectively by hybrid FSCH 75 applied with zinc level, ZnSO4 @ 15 kg ha-1 + ZnSB @ 200 ml/kg of seed.

Open Access Review Article

Biochar: An Emerging Soil Amendment for Sustaining Soil Health and Black Gold for Indian Agriculture

Vikram Shiyal, V. M. Patel, H. K. Patel, Mayur Rathwa, Piyush Patel

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 6-12
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i122072

At the international level, improving soil with coal is seen as a means to increase soil productivity, fertility and also to mitigate climate change. Biochar, which is used to increase land fertility and store carbon, is currently gaining scientific attention and popularity in the agriculture sector. It is a solid material made by pyrolysis process of any biomass, including weeds, agricultural leftovers and other plant wastes, to carbonise it and use it as a soil amendment and carbon sequestration medium. Biochar is a viable option for enhancing soil chemical properties such as cation exchange capacity (CEC) and soil pH, as well as lowering exchangeable acidity. Biochar was also discovered to boost soil biota by boosting nutrient availability, improving habitat appropriateness, increasing water retention and aeration as well as lowering harmful compounds in the soil. Also, it can help to mitigate climate change by sequestering carbon in the soil and reducing nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) gas emissions to the environment by enhancing soil absorption.