Open Access Minireview Article

Panchagavya as Soil Conditioner: Ancient Traditional Knowledge for Sustainable Agriculture

Guntimadugu Sanhthosh Kumar Raju, Prudhvi Nawabpet, Arun Kumar

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 181-186
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112065

Panchagavya is an ancient traditional agricultural knowledge in Indian farming, where farmers were used in crops from decades, It is completely cow based products combination of five ingredients majorly Cow's dung, urine, milk, ghee and curd, instead of these other ingredients like jaggery, coconut water, ripped bananas were also used to boosting its role. In agriculture, Panchagavya acts as a soil health improver by providing nutrients to plants that it has the abundant quantity of growth promoting hormones, macro and micro nutrients, helpful microorganism that are mutually cooperated with the plant roots and soil in Rhizosphere zone that may helpful in conversion of organic form of nutrients to inorganic form where plants can easily uptake them and results better plants immune system and effective control of various diseases in plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Aspergillus niger Phospho-compost on Growth, Dry Matter Yield and P Uptake of Maize

Ivy Mamle Nyamedi, Isaac Tawiah Larteh, Kwabena Kyere

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1130901

Aims: Soils in Ghana's coastal savanna are typically poor in phosphorus (P), which has an impact on crop growth and productivity. The majority of West African phosphate rock formations are not reactive; therefore, their direct applications do not facilitate easy P availability to crops. Co-composting organic waste with phosphate rock and using phosphorus-solubilizing microorganisms is the new paradigm adopted by scientists in response to the lack of P availability (PSMs). The goals of this study were to (1) assess the effect of Aspergillus niger in P dissolution in phosphate rock during composting with citrus waste (CW) and rice straw (RS) and (2) to evaluate the effect of phosphor-compost on growth, dry matter yield and P uptake of maize.

Methodology: Preparation of compost took place at University of Ghana Forest and Horticulture Research Center, Okumaning Camp close to Kade. Citrus waste and rice straw were used as feed stock. Each composting pile contained a mixture of urea, Togo phosphate rock, and feedstock in a 1:3:24 weight-to-weight ratio.

Results: According to the findings, citrus waste feedstock was superior to rice straw in dissolving the P in rock phosphate. In a pot experiment, the phospho-composts were assessed using maize (Zea mays) as the test crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Performance of Coconut Production in Global Scenario: A Quin-decadal Analysis

N. Narmadha, K. R. Karunakaran

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 7-15
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1130902

The purpose of this study is to examine the coconut sector's growth performance and instability in the world context. Since Indonesia, Philippines and India are the world's biggest producer of coconuts which accounted for 75 per cent of overall production in the world and contribute around 80 percent of the total land for coconut farming. Area, production, and yield of coconut were collected from Faostat and ICC websites based on secondary data from 1990-91 to 2020-21. The study period was divided into period I (1990-91 to 2005-06) and period II (2006-07 to 2020-21). The study examines growth patterns using the compound growth rate, measures instability using the Coppock’s instability index, and investigates the role of area and yield on production using decomposition analysis. The results revealed that growth rate of area was positive for Indonesia, Philippines and Indonesia for all the period. But production trend was negative in respective countries due to yield trend shows negative growth on period II. Similar results were found from instability index and decomposition analysis. This may due to poor management practices, severe diseases and pests of the plantations. Hence, greater attention needs to be given to the states where to attract and encourage many new farmers into coconut cultivation by accessing modern technology, quality plantations, credit facilities by support of government.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating Hypoglycaemic Activity of Pomegranate Peel Powder and Defatted Soybean Flour Formulated Cookies in STZ Induced Diabetic Rats

Harish Thulsidhar, . Bhuvaneshwari, S. L. Jagadeesh, V. M. Chandrashekhar, Deepa Terdal, Palpandian Preethi, Sanikommu Vijay Rakesh Reddy

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 16-23
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1130903

Pomegranate fruit peel is an inedible part obtained during the processing of pomegranate juice. Compared to the pulp fraction, it contains more total polyphenols and has a better antioxidant potential. Even though they are good sources of protein, dietary fiber, a variety of minerals, and phytochemicals, soybeans often have a nutritional function. When soybeans are utilized to partially replace wheat in bread items, the nutritional quality will be improved. In the present investigation, defatted soybean flour (DSF) and pomegranate peel powder (PPP) based cookies were made, and their effectiveness on the glycemic activity at the serum level was investigated using two concentrations—5 g and 10 g/rat/day in diabetic and non-diabetic induced rats for up to 21 days. Serum glucose, cholesterol, and haemoglobin levels were favourably affected (-56.92%, -56.33%, and +22.34% correspondingly) by the laboratory diet plus 10g of cookies per rat per day in the G6 group of rats after the trial (21 days). In diabetic and non-diabetic rats, PPP and DSF included cookies that lowered blood glucose and cholesterol levels and raised haemoglobin content, but it kept their levels at the required range regardless of the dosage of cookies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Larval Diet on Pupal Period and Size of Cocoon of Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi (Esben-Peterson)

Satya Narayan Satapathy, S. M. A. Mandal

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 24-27
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1130904

A study was conducted in the Biocontrol Laboratory, Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, OUAT, Bhubaneswar, Odisha during 2020-21 to record the influence of larval diets on pupal period and size of cocoon of Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi (Esben-Peterson). Six larval diets i.e. T1 (Purple aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch.), T2 (Green aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer)), T3 (Mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.)), T4 (Papaya mealy bug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink), T5 (Pink mealy bug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green)) and T6 (Corcyra cephalonica Stainton 1st instar larva) were tested along with one control (T7= Corcyra cephalonica egg). T1 was detected as the best larval diet which produced maximum pupal period of 8.90 days with 16.80% increased over control. Maximum cocoon diameter was also recorded in T1 i.e. 3.28 mm with 11.95% increased over control. T1 was closely followed by T3 with respect to pupal period (8.74 days with 14.70% increase over control) and diameter of cocoon (3.20 mm with 9.22% increase over control) of C. zastrowi sillemi.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Nutrient Uptake, Use Efficiency and Yield in Different Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Establishment Methods under Nutrient Management Practices

K. Poojitha, G. R. Denesh

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 28-34
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1130905

The experiment was conducted at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Vishwesharaiah Canal Farm, Mandya during 2018-19 to study the nutrient uptake (NPK), use efficiency and grain yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in different establishment methods under varied nutrient management practices. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three replications. The main plot comprised of three establishment methods viz., semi dry rice, drum seeded rice and transplanted rice and whereas the subplot had five nutrient management practices. The nitrogen, phosphorous and potash uptake by rice plant in grain, straw and total was statistically on par among establishment methods. Further, the application of 150% Recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers (RDIF) recorded significantly higher total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake. Among establishment methods, significantly higher Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE) was recorded in transplanted rice (64.40 kg kg-1), but Phosphorus Use Efficiency (PUE) (88.38 to 101.72 kg kg-1) and Potassium Use Efficiency (KUE) (114.76 to 129.82 kg kg-1) recorded were statistically at par between establishment methods. The significantly higher NUE (90.73 kg kg-1) in Leaf Color Chart (LCC) based nitrogen management, PUE (108.36 kg kg-1) in nutrient management as per UAS (B) package of practices and KUE (149.16 kg kg-1) in 100% RDIF treatments. The grain yield recoded was at par among rice establishment methods (5521 to 6242 kg ha-1), however was superior in nutrient management with 150% RDIF (6687 kg ha-1).

Open Access Original Research Article

Gas Exchange of Oiticica Seedlings in Response to Potassium Fertilization and Water Turning

Rosilvam Ramos de Sousa, Antonio Lucineudo de Oliveira Freire

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 35-46
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1130906

Aims: This objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of water deficiency on physiological aspects of oiticica plants, as well as the capacity of potassium fertilization to attenuate such effects.

Study Design: The treatments were distributed in an entirely randomized design (DIC), consisting of a 4x4 factorial, with four levels of potassium (K) and four water turning, with five repetitions.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in a shaded environment, with 50% light interception, in the Forest Nursery of UAEF/UFCG, between January 2020 and July 2020.

Methodology: The relative water content (RWC), transpiration (E) and photosynthesis (A) rates, stomatal conductance (gs), and internal CO2 concentration (Ci) were evaluated, and from the values of A and E, the intrinsic water use efficiency (EUAi) was calculated and, with the data of A and Ci, the carboxylation efficiency (A/Ci).

Results: There was significant interaction of treatments in the parameters RWC, E, gs, A and EUAi and isolated effect of water turning on Ci and A/Ci. Irrigation daily or every five days provided the maintenance of higher water status and better stomatal behavior, and the plants were sensitive to water stress provided by longer water turnings (every 10 and 15 days). The fertilization with 100 and 150 mg dm-3 of K kept the values of E and A high, even under low water availability.

Conclusion: Potassium fertilization proved to be effective in attenuating the negative effects caused by water deficiency on gas exchange and WUEi of the seedlings, with highlights for 100 and 150 mg dm-3 of K levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) Genotypes for Drought Tolerance Using Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) 6000

Swarna Gangotri, D. A. Peerjade, M. Awati, D. Satish

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 47-55
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112052

Chilli is an important vegetable and spice crop in India. It is cultivated under both irrigated and rainfed conditions. Most of the local genotypes are grown in rainfed conditions and they are known to withstand drought to some extent with lowered yield. Since chilli varieties or hybrids are not developed for drought tolerance, an experiment was conducted to evaluate 34 genotypes of chilli collected from different regions for drought tolerance using polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000). Four genotypes viz., Arka Lohit, Arka Abhir, Byadgi Kaddi, and Byadgi Dabbi were used for standardization under different PEG concentrations from 2% to 12%. The 10% PEG was used as the optimum concentration based on the results of germination percent, root length, and shoot length. Among thethirty-four chilli genotypes screened using 10% PEG on the basis of highest germination percent, root length and shoot length chilli genotypes viz., Arka Lohit, DB variety, and Dappa were found superior over other genotypes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enhancing Common Bean Tolerance to Short-term Droughts at the Reproductive Stage using a Soil Fertility Management Approach

Mavis B. Brempong, Stephen Yeboah, Paul Marno, Abigail Addo-Danso, Agbesi K. Keteku, Kennedy Agyemang, Sylvester Addy, Maxwell Lamptey, Patricia Amankwaa-Yeboah, Eric O. Danquah, Elvis O. Agyei, James Y. Asibuo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 56-74
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112053

Aims: This study was conducted to enhance the tolerance of common beans to drought events occurring at the reproductive stage, from a soil improvement perspective.

Study Design: Split plot completely randomized design was used.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted in a screen-house at the Legumes and Oil Seeds Division of CSIR-Crops Research Institute, Ghana, from September 2021 to January 2022.

Methodology: Municipal Solid Waste Compost and inorganic fertilizer combinations were applied to common beans in a pot experiment. They included control, full rate compost (FRAC), full rate fertilizer (NPK 5:30:30 kg/ha) (FRG), FRG + half rate compost (HRAC) and FRG + FRAC. All soils were maintained at 80% field capacity (FC) from the start of the experiment. At flowering, two groups of plants were water stressed till 40 and 16% FC and returned to 80% FC till physiological maturity, while one group maintained 80% FC throughout study. Forty-five soil samples each and plant data were collected at 3, 7 and 10 weeks after planting. Samples were analyzed for soil organic matter (SOM) and water retention, soil nutrients, crop growth, yield and nutrient uptake. Water and nitrogen use efficiencies (W/NUE) were calculated after harvest.

Results: During the growing period, highest soil moisture (6-9 cm3/cm3) was retained by FRG and FRG+HRAC, FRG+FRAC; 20-38% more than FRAC and control but was not influenced by SOM. While FRG influenced the highest yield and WUE, combining it with compost rates reduced yield by 56-84% and WUE by 55-64%. WUE correlated positively with NUE.

Conclusion: Antagonistic effect observed with integrating compost with FRG is likely because compost was not properly cured and immobilized soil nitrogen. Farmers can mitigate short-term drought effects on common beans with adequate nutrient supply through fertilizer application; however, fertilizer should only be integrated with compost after compost quality analysis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diffusion and Awareness of Woman Friendly Farm Tools & Equipment among the Farmers

Jagdeep Singh, Mamta Kumari

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 75-90
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112054

Farmers toil day and night to provide food for the world's population, while their social and economic situations deteriorate with each passing day. Indian agriculture is heavily reliant on the monsoon season, which results in abundant agricultural output. Because of a successful monsoon, the agriculture sector has thrived throughout the Covid-19 scenario and has gained about 11 million workers in the previous three years, whereas the other sectors have lost more than 21.7 million jobs in the 2020-21 fiscal years alone. The findings of the literature review revealed that farmers face a wide range of issues, including a lack of mechanization, a lack of irrigation, and lack of working capital etc. An empirical study was conduct to understand whether farmers were aware about the technologies developed by the CAIE, Bhopal & other ICAR institutes in Dhoraji of district Rajkot in Gujarat states. A total of 100 farmers were randomly selected based on convenience to assess the diffusion level & awareness level of technologies among the farmers. The study found that the results were shocking and government has to take prompt actions to increase the awareness and diffusion of technology among the farmers of Dhoraji.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Charcoal and Seedling Depth on Soil Properties and Melon Yield Components (Cucumis melo) in Poro, Côte d'Ivoire

Métangbo Diomandé, Marie-Paule Hien, Amidou Ouattara, Antoine Koffi, Bénédict Adjoa Ehouman, Dognimeton Soro

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 91-102
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112055

The combined effect of charcoal amendment and seeding depth was tested on soil properties and yield components of melon (Cucumis melo) at the botanical garden of the Peleforo Gon Coulibaly University of Korhogo. With the exception of the control plot, 6 kg of charcoal were applied by hand on ridges of 2.25 m2 in the first 10 cm of soil one month before sowing. The seeds were sown manually at 0.5 cm (control depth); 3 cm; 7 cm and 9 cm deep. The results showed that the application of charcoal significantly increased germination rate ((P˂ 0.002), growth (P ˂ 0.0001) and fruit yield (p = 0.0001). The combined effect of charcoal input and sowing depth was noticeable from the 47th day after sowing (P = 0.0001), the greatest values having been observed at a depth of 9 cm Correlated to the growth of the plants, the best fruit yields were obtained from the depths 9 cm with an average of 4 fruits per plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Price Spread and Marketing Efficiency of Fish Marketing in Nalgonda, Suryapet and Yadadri Bhuvanagiri Districts of Telangana

M. Sindhu, K. Sravanthi, Md. Ali Baba

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 103-107
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112056

Aim: To analyze the price spread and marketing efficiency in marketing of fish in Nalgonda, Suryapet and Yadadri Bhuvanagiri districts of Telangana state.

Study Design: The study was conducted in Nalgonda, Suryapet and Yadadri Bhuvanagiri districts of Telangana state during the year 2019-20. Nalgonda district was purposively selected as it has highest area under fish farming in Telangana. Suryapet and Yadadri Bhuvanagiri districts were part of undivided Nalgonda district before formation of new districts in Telangana in 2016. Hence, they were also included in the study.

Methodology: A sample of 60 fish farmers and 30 market intermediaries were randomly selected for the study. Primary data was collected from respondents using pre-tested questionnaire by survey method. Price spread, producers share in consumer rupee and marketing efficiency of fish were computed.

Results: Three marketing channels were found prominent for marketing of fish viz., Channel 1  (Fish farmer ⇨ Commission Agent/Trader ⇨ Wholesaler at Hyderabad ⇨ Retailer at Hyderabad ⇨ Consumer), Channel 2 (Fish farmer ⇨ Commission Agent/Trader ⇨ Wholesaler at Kolkata ⇨ Retailer at Kolkata ⇨ Consumer) and Channel 3 (Fish farmer ⇨ Commission Agent/Trader ⇨ Vendor ⇨ Consumer). Among the three channels, Channel 3 was found highly efficient with marketing efficiency of 2.04% followed by Channel 1 (1.80%) and least for Channel 2 (1.33%).

Conclusion: Encouraging fish farmers to form into Co-operatives or Fish Farmer Producer Organization and bringing awareness in producers and consumers on daily prices of various fish species will help in developing the marketing of fish.

Open Access Original Research Article

Haematological and Serum Biochemical Profiles of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Fed Commercial and Farm-made Feeds

Sulem-Yong Nina Nindum, Essoh Etouke Adrien, Mengue N. Yolande Sandrine, Dakwen Jeannette, Owona P. Emmanuel, Etchu A. Kingsley, Nola Moïse, Zebaze Togouet S. Hubert

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 108-118
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112057

The present study was carried out to determine the haematological and serum biochemical profiles of Clarias gariepinus juveniles fed commercial and farm-made feeds and reared in intermediate bulk containers (IBC) tanks. Nine hundred juveniles (15.15±3.48g; 128.37± 9.67mm) were stocked in 09 IBC tanks (1m3) at a density of 100 fish/tank in triplicate and fed with imported extruded (Le), locally pelleted (Lpe) and locally extruded (Lex) feeds thrice a day to satiation for 16 weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected from 10 fish/ dietary treatment to determine haematological and biochemical indices. Results revealed that Red Blood Cells Count, Packed Cell volume and Haemoglobin concentration were highest (p<0.05) in fish fed with “Le” feed while Mean Cell Haemoglobin Concentration, Mean Cell Haemoglobin, Mean Cell Volume, White Blood Cells Count, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Granulocytes and Platelets showed no significant difference (p>0.05) among the dietary treatments. As for serum biochemistry, Total Cholesterol and Glucose were highest (p<0.05) in fish fed with “Le” feed while Total Protein, Alanine Transaminase, Aspartate Transaminase and Alkaline Phosphatase were significantly higher (p<0.05) in fish fed “Lpe” and “Lex” feeds. Conclusively, variation of dietary treatments was not detrimental to the health status of C. gariepinus reared in plastic IBC tanks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Suitable Budwood Source through Quality Assessment of Avocado (Persea americana Mill.)

I. A. Idun, M. Osei, P. K. Tandoh

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 119-130
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112058

Avocado (Persea americana Mill.)  is gaining increasing global appeal and has received massive marketing and distribution due to its significant nutritional benefits for human health. There is little or no history on how the fruit was introduced into the country. However, raising suitable planting materials continues to be a challenge. Thus, the study sought to identify suitable budwood sources through fruit quality assessments. Mature, bruised-free fruits were harvested from five different trees at New Koforidua in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. The experimental design for this study was a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with five replicates. Twenty-five fruits were selected from each tree for data collection and fruit analysis. The parameters studied were the physical properties (fruit weight, fruit firmness, seed weight, pulp weight, peel weight, fruit length and fruit diameter) and chemical properties [chemical composition, pH, total titratable acids (TTA) and total soluble solids (TSS)]. A sensory analysis was also conducted. The statistics were subjected to the Statistix version 10 and the means were separated using the LSD at an alpha level of 0.01. Significant differences were found in the seed weight, pulp weight, fruit length and diameter respectively, at an alpha value (p≤0.01) with “tree F” showing the highest recordings (92.03±5.57) for seed weight, (267.84±569) for pulp weight, (13.90±0.32) for fruit length and (8.44±0.12) for diameter, respectively. There was a progressive reduction in the fruit weight and fruit firmness over a period of seven and five days, respectively. There was a significant difference in the TSS and TTA at an alpha value of 0.01 with treatment J and treatment H recording the highest values of (0.36±0.02) and (1.18±0.07), respectively. The study showed that fruits of treatment F possess superior qualities than the rest of the varieties and can be a suitable budwood source.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Iron Nutrition on Soil Properties, Uptake and Yield of Soybean Grown on Iron Deficient Inceptisol

B. M. Kamble, Rajkumar Meena, P. N. Gajbhiye

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 131-142
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112059

Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for optimum growth and yield of crop. In calcareous soils availability of Fe is low, to correct Fe deficient soil application of Chelated Fe-EDTA is often recommended to avoid the possible nutritional disorder due to antagonistic effect of Fe with other cationic micronutrients. The present study was initiated with an objective to evaluate response of soybean crop to soil and foliar application of iron. The experiment was carried out at Agricultural Research Station, Kasbe Digraj, Dist: Sangli (MS) during kharif 2018-19. The experimental soil was alkaline, calcareous, clay in texture, low in available nitrogen, phosphorus, very high in available potassium and deficient in iron. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with eight treatments and three replications. The treatments comprised of common application of NPK fertilizers in conjunction with 10 t FYM ha-1, soil application of FeSO4 @ 10 and 20 kg ha-1 with and without 0.2 per cent spray of chelated Fe. The results revealed that the soil pH and electrical conductivity did not differ due to different treatments however, the organic carbon content was found to be slightly improved over control. The free calcium carbonate percentage in soil also found to be statistically non-significant although it revealed slight decline from the initial value due to different iron nutrition treatments. General recommended dose of fertilizers +Soil application of FeSO4 @ 20 kg ha-1 + two foliar sprays of chelated Fe @ 0.2 per cent at 30 and 50 DAS (T8) recorded significantly higher available N, P and DTPA Fe over control treatment whereas, available K, DTPA Zn, Mn and Cu were found to be statistically non-significant due to different treatment of iron nutrition along with NPK fertilizers and organic manure. Significantly highest total uptake of N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn by soybean was exhibited in T8 which was either equivalent or statistically at par to GRDF + soil application of FeSO4 @ 10 kg ha-1  + two foliar sprays of chelated Fe @ 0.2% at 30 and 50 DAS (T7). In general, all the treatments of iron nutrition were statistically at par in context of soil nutrient and nutrient uptake by soybean crop. Significantly higher grain yield (2493 kg ha-1 ), straw yield (3779 kg ha-1 ) of soybean was recorded by T8 which was closely followed by T7. All the treatments of iron nutrition irrespective of method of application recorded statistically at par grain yield of soybean nonetheless, soil application of FeSO4 was found to be beneficial in correcting the initial deficient iron and zinc status in the soil. In a nutshell, it can be concluded that soil application of FeSO4 @ 10 or 20 kg ha-1 is adequate for obtaining optimum soybean yield and sustaining soil fertility in an iron deficient, slightly calcareous Inceptisol soil. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Will Certain Adjuvants Improve the Preemergence Activity of Pendimethalin or S-metolachlor?

W. James Grichar, Joshua A. McGinty

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 143-150
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112060

Aims: To determine weed efficacy when using adjuvants such as Grounded or Spectrum in combination with pendimethalin or S-metolachlor.

Study Design:  Randomized complete-block with 3 replications. 

Place and Duration of Study: Field studies were conducted during the 2021 growing season near Yoakum (29.2765o N, 97.1238o W) in south-central Texas and near Corpus Christi (27.7817o N, 97.5737o W) along the upper Texas Gulf Coast.

Methodology: Herbicides were applied preemergence either alone or in combination with Grounded at 2.3 L ha-1 or Spectrum at 0.6 L ha-1 after corn (Zea mays L.) or peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) were planted at Yoakum and under a non-crop situation at Corpus Christi.

Results: In corn when evaluated 7 weeks after treatment (WAT), the addition of Grounded to pendimethalin at 1.06 kg ha-1 reduced Palmer amaranth control when compared with pendimethalin alone at the same rate or with the addition of Spectrum.  Smellmelon control with pendimethalin at 0.53 kg ha-1 improved with the addition of Grounded over pendimethalin alone.  When evaluated 15 WAT, only Texas millet was present in consistent enough populations to evaluate and no differences in control were noted with/without an adjuvant with either pendimethalin or S-metolachlor.  In peanut when evaluated 26 and 54 days after treatment (DAT), Texas millet or smellmelon control was not influenced with the use of either Grounded or Spectrum.  In the non-cropland study, when evaluated 14 DAT, both Texas millet and Palmer amaranth control was > 97% with all combinations of pendimethalin or S-metolachlor with/without an adjuvant.  At the 42 DAT evaluation, again no differences in weed control were noted between the herbicides without an adjuvant and with the addition of Grounded or Spectrum.

Conclusion: In none of the trials did the addition of either Grounded or Spectrum to either pendimethalin or S-metolachlor consistently improve weed efficacy.  Also the length of herbicide persistence was not increased with these adjuvants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Divergence Study of Rice (Oryza sativa L) Genotypes for Consumer-preferred Quality Traits

Amrutlal R. Khaire, S. K. Singh, M. Jayasudha, Akanksha Singh, D. K. Singh, Korada Mounika, Sonali Vijay Habde, Prasanta Kumar Manzhi, Arsode Pandurang Bhagvan, Saurav Singla

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 151-158
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112061

Aim: To study the divergence of forty rice genotypes for consumer-preferred eleven quality traits.

Design, Place and Duration of the Study: The rice seeds were harvested from randomly selected plants grown in alpha lattice design with three replications during Kharif season (start in June and end in October) 2018 at Agricultural research farm, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi UP, India.

Methodology: The data were analysed using biometrical tools - Mahalanobis D2 and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The studied traits include, - grain length, grain breadth, kernel length, length to breadth ratio, kernel breadth, kernel length after cooking, kernel breadth after cooking, elongation ratio, elongation index, amylose content and alkali digestion value.

Results: Using Mahalanobis D2, all forty genotypes were distributed into six clusters. The maximum inter-cluster distance was recorded between Cluster II to cluster V (5.76), followed by cluster V and cluster III (5.71), and cluster II and cluster VI (5.57) which indicated the existence of high genetic diversity among genotypes in these clusters  and, therefore, crosses between the genotypes of these clusters could yield desirable transgressive  isolates for desirable quality traits and   the importance of the genotypes present in these clusters for exploiting heterosis for the desirable traits of these clusters. The PCA indicates that the five principal components (PC) captured almost 90% of variability present among the 40 rice genotypes.

Conclusion: The genotypes belonging to Cluster II to cluster V, followed by cluster V and cluster III, and cluster II and cluster VI, can be used for making crosses as they have higher mean values for quality traits and higher inter-cluster distance for greater diversity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) under Different Levels of Phosphorus and Potassium in Combination with Biofertilizers

Yasser Hussain Lone, Tariq Sultan, A. A. Saad, Tanveer Ahmad Ahngar, Zahoor Ahmad Baba, Mohammad Asif Sheikh, Mohammad Salim Mir, Sabiya Bashir, Faisul - Ur – Rasool, Shabeena Majid, Idrees Mohammad, Syed Inamul Haq, Ishfaq Majeed Shah

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 169-174
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112063

A field experiment entitled “Performance of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) under different levels of phosphorus and potassium in combination with biofertilizers” was conducted at crop research farm of Division of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, during kharif 2018. The soil of the experimental field was clay loam in texture, neutral in reaction (pH = 6.9), low in available nitrogen, low in available phosphorus, medium in available potassium and medium in organic carbon. The experiment was laid in RBD design having nine treatments and three replications. The observation revealed that grain yield (10.57 qha-1), straw yield (18.94 qha-1), yield attributes was high with the application of RDF (30N+60P2O5+30K2O) kg ha-1 + seed inoculation with PSB and KSB than other treatments. The RDF+ seed inoculation with PSB and KSB recorded 15.89% high grain yield than RDF (30N+60P2O5+30K2O) kg ha-1. B:C was also recorded more with application of RDF + seed inoculation with PSB and KSB (2.99) and was followed by RDF + seed inoculation with PSB (2.62) whereas lowest benefit cost ration was recorded with control treatment (2.24).

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints in Adoption of Clean and Safe Milking Techniques by Dairy Farmers in Kerala: An Assessment

Aneetta V. Antony, Ajay Verma, Udita Choudhary, Biswajit Sen, Anil Kumar Dixit

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 175-180
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112064

Aim: The constraints involved in the adoption of clean and safe milk production practices were identified from a sample of 210 farmers covering three major districts of Kerala i.e. Kollam, Thiruvananthapuram, and Palakkad randomly. Average adoption score of 65 out of 95 practices indicated the need to sensitize the farmers for adoption of clean and safe milk production practices.

Methodology: The constraints faced by the farmers in adopting clean and safe milk production practices were identified and ranked using Garrett’s ranking technique. Kendall rank correlation was used to estimate the ordinal association of the ranks given to constraints by the farmers.

Results: Inadequate information about clean and safe milk production practices was identified to be the major constraint faced by the farmers followed by high cost of inputs, lack of finance, lack of infrastructure and constraints on the availability of land. Lack of finance, high cost of inputs and constraints on the availability of land were found to be strongly correlated to each other, having a cumulative adverse effect on the adoption of clean and safe milking practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of ASEAN- India Free Trade Agreement (AIFTA) on Palm Oil Trade

B. Teena Lakshmi, K. M. Shivakumar, D. Suresh Kumar, K. Mahendran, J. Suresh

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 187-194
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112066

Aims: To analyse the trade creation and trade diversion effect of the ASEAN-India Free Trade Agreement (AIFTA) on palm oil trade among the member countries.

Data and Methodology: Data on palm oil exports of major Association of South East Asian countries (ASEAN) member countries such as Indonesia (64.10%), Malaysia (31.52%), Thailand (2.18%), Singapore (1.95%) and Philippines (0.25%) were collected for the period of 21 years (2000–2020) and used for the analysis. The Gravity model by Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and Poisson Pseudo-Maximum Likelihood (PPML) methods were estimated with the panel data.

Results: As expected gravity model variables the distance had a negative impact on the palm oil trade between India and ASEAN member countries. The tariff rates and export prices had a negative impact on the palm oil trade whereas; the population of ASEAN members (exporters), GDP of ASEAN members and exchange rate were insignificant. The AIFTA had a positive and significant effect on the palm oil trade from ASEAN member countries to India which denoted the trade creation effect between ASEAN members and India.

Conclusion: The analysis showed a pure trade creation effect of AIFTA in the time and country fixed effect model. The results suggested that the palm oil trade could be pushed for further trade liberalisation in the AIFTA.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Three Doses of Fungicide Ridomil Gold 66 WP in the Control of Phytophthora spp., Agent of Cocoa Tree Black Pod Disease in Côte d'Ivoire

Coulibaly Klotioloma, Ouattara Adama, Essis Brice Sidoine, Kouame Norbert, Gogbe Françoise, Guiraud Brigitte, N’guessan Walet Pierre, Acka Kotaix, Tahi Mathias, Assi Maryse, Kone Daouda, N’guessan François

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 205-211
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112068

Black pod disease is a major constraint to cocoa production in Côte d'Ivoire. Varietal selection and fungicide treatments are the principal means of control. Fungicide Ridomil Gold 66 WP (6% Metalaxyl and 60% copper oxide) is commonly used. This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of three doses of Ridomil Gold 66 WP in the control of black pod disease. An experiment on the rates of this fungicide was conducted in two localities (Aboisso and Duékoué). The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four treatments, replicated four times. The treatments comprised untreated or controlled, single dose (3.3 g/l) or recommended dose, double dose (6.6 g/l) or 2×recommanded dose and triple dose (9.9 g/l) or 3×recommanded dose. All data collected were subjected to ANOVA with the test of Student and Newmann-Keuls at the 5% threshold. As result, no significant difference was observed between the treatments of the three doses of Ridomil. But, a significant difference was observed between the fungicide treatments and the control. In Duékoué, black pod rates ranged from 4.5 to 9.52% in fungicide treated plots against 33.8% in control plots. In Aboisso, black pod rates ranged from 7.11 to 13.83% for fungicide treated plots against 30.83% for the control plots. Fungicide treatments increased healthy cocoa pod yields in both localities. The yields were increased by 51.35 to 89.63% in treated plots of Aboisso and by 34.63 to 101.06% in treated plots of Duékoué. This study confirmed the efficacy of the recommended dose (3.3 g/l) of Ridomil Gold 66 WP in the management of black pod disease. Yet, even if high doses of Ridomil Gold 66 WP improved yield, it could also be led to the development of resistant strains of Phytophthora spp. and increase production costs.

Open Access Original Research Article

People’s Perception about Plant-based Formulated Diets as a Non-chemical Method of Rodent Population Control in Nigeria

H. A. Badmus, A. A. Alarape

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 212-225
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112069

A total number of two hundred and thirty five (235) respondents responded to the self-structured (online Google form) questionnaires administered to them without being bias to sample their opinions on the performance of common rodent population control methods and their readiness to embrace plant-based formulated diets as a method of rodent population control in Nigeria. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the questionnaires.  The results showed that rodent population should be controlled to reduce their damage to agricultural crops (97.4%), to reduce zoonotic diseases (94.9%), and for conservation reasons (82.6%) in Nigeria. It was also revealed that some of the common rodent population control methods were found to be humane, cost effective, acceptable, and effective but at different levels. The plant-based formulated diet as a method of population reduction would be humane (69.8%), acceptable (65.1%), and effective (68.5%) method. The plant-based formulated diet was viewed as a promising method and this indicated readiness to adopt the method as an alternative to the common methods of rodent population control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Ultraviolet Light for Surface Decontamination of Raw Chicken Carcasses

Kajal D. More, Rupesh N. Waghamare, Vivek V. Deshmukh, Sanjay V. Londhe, Kakasaheb K. Khose

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 226-239
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112070

Aim: Fresh chicken meat is especially susceptible to surface contamination. The researchers are looking into non-thermal and non-chemical preservation techniques for meat.  Therefore, the present study was planned to investigate the use of UV-C light for the decontamination of raw chicken carcasses at refrigeration temperature (0-4OC).

Study Design: The study was undertaken in two phases wherein, the first phase standardization of UV dose and later the comparative effect of selected UV light and sodium hypochlorite exposure on the shelf life of poultry carcasses (0-4OC) was carried out.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was performed in the Department of Veterinary Public Health, Poultry and Goat Processing Unit, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Parbhani (MH) India, from October 2021 to April 2022.

Methodology: We performed the microbial, physicochemical, and sensory (odour) evaluation of the chicken carcasses during storage up to 72 hrs. Amongst various UV doses with different exposure times and distances tested, UV-C light exposure generated 233.86, 103.93, 207.87, and 415.75 mJ/cm2 energy for various groups.

Results: A microbial analysis in a standardization study revealed that a significantly (p<0.05) lower total viable count was observed in UV (415.75 mJ/cm2) group. Similarly, counts of Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli were significantly (p<0.05) lower in UV-C light (207.87 mJ/cm2 and 415.75 mJ/cm2) groups. The shelf-life analysis indicated that UV-C light (415.75 mJ/cm2) and sodium hypochlorite (50 ppm) were equally effective in reducing the microflora of carcasses. The pH and TBA values of both treatment groups did not differ significantly but an increasing trend was recorded for peroxide and tyrosine values throughout the storage period.

Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicate that UV-C light technology may be applied for surface decontamination of raw chicken carcasses.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Micronutrients Foliar Nutrition in Vegetable Production: A Review

Nihar A. Patel, R. M. Mangroliya, J. J. Patel

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 159-168
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112062

Vegetables are potential source of vitamins, minerals and dietary fibers. Proper plant nutrition is essential for successful production of vegetable crops. Integrated supply of micronutrients with macronutrients in adequate amount is an important approach to sustain the soil health and crop productivity besides maintaining the nutritional quality of vegetables. Micronutrients (Fe, Zn, B, Cu, Mn, Cl, Mo, Ni) are required by plants in small or trace quantities. They are essentially as important as macronutrients for better growth, yield and quality of plants. Deficiencies of micronutrients may induce several physiological disorders in plants and drastically affect growth, metabolism and reproductive phase in plants. The successful tasks carried out by various micronutrients include plant metabolism, nutritional management, chlorophyll production, reproductive growth, flower retention, fruit and seed development, etc. Judicious use of micronutrients is essential for vegetable cultivation to get maximum yield of high quality produce. Foliar nutrition is the one of the most efficient method of applying micronutrients. Spraying of nutrient solutions on the foliage of growing plants is known as foliar nutrition.  Foliar nutrition of micronutrients at right concentration and at right growth stage is important for better results. Micronutrients applied by foliar application are more effective than those applied through soil application because soil application requires longer time for micronutrient absorption and assimilation. Foliar application of micronutrients plays a dynamic role and has been found beneficial for improving growth, yield and quality attributes of vegetable crops. In general, this review shows an immense potential of foliar nutrition of micronutrients in vegetable production. The main aim of this study is to know and explore the benefits of micronutrients through foliar nutrition for improving the production potential of different vegetable crops.

Open Access Review Article

Different Bush Cutting Device: A Review

S. K. Chavda, K. B. Jhala, S. K. Gaadhe

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 195-204
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112067

In a Saurashtra region, farmers are facing a major problem with the trimming of boundary bushes or cutting of the fence of agriculture. In addition to this, unwanted bush also obstructs farm operations, roads, and electricity poles. Currently, bush-cutting is done through manual trimming by agricultural workers, but it is a time-consuming and expensive operation. In addition, using an axe or saw may lead to injury. To overcome this problem, it requires good tools or machines for safe and easy operation. Many mechanical devices are available to perform boundary bush trimming or agricultural fence cutting, but conventional mechanical power has several drawbacks, including non-continuous operation, limited speeds due to the use of mechanical gearboxes, high power loss in transmission, and increased maintenance. As time has changed, an improvement in traditional tools and devices is required. Hydraulic power is a good alternative to mechanical power, and it reduces the risks of human injury as compared to mechanical power. Also, the power transmission is more economical as compared to the mechanical. To maintain the preceding point, a hydraulic power transmission system was chosen over a mechanical one. In this study, an existing method was compared in terms of time and cost with a developed machine.